Right to Freedom of religion Art 25: P3 -Profess,Practice,Propagate Conscience – inner freedom Profess -declare openly Practice – rituals and use signs Propagate – spread but not force Opinion & belief – no state interference Conduct & practice – state can Art 26: Religious denomination Est. institutions for religion and charity Manage its affairs Right to property Administer its property […]
Under Biodiversity conservation scheme, there are two main subcomponents
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
- Legally binding
- Aichi target
- India enacted the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 to give effect to the provisions of CBD.
- National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was created to implement the provisions of BDA, 2002.
- Located at Chennai
- Autonomous body
- Statutory body
- Regulatory body
- Decentralized – national, state and local
- Nagoya protocol
- Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS)
- Adopted under the aegis of CBD
- Legally binding
- Cartagena Bio safety protocol
- Under the aegis of CBD
- Legally binding
- Safe transfer, handling and use of Living Modified Organisms (LMO) resulting from modern biotech that may have adverse effect
- Seeks to protect the world from GMOs resulting from modern biotech.
- Advanced Informed Agreement – procedure to LMOs across border
Right to equality Art 14 : Law Equal before law Negative English const Absence of any privileges Law is supreme authority – govt subjected to law Art 361 (exception for president and governor) Dicey No punishment unless law violated Every one equal before law without discrimination Law is the superior – const is superior in […]
Cultural and Educational Rights
Art 29: Minorities interest
- Protect identity
- Unity in diversity
- Majority and minority
- State can’t deny admission in edu on grounds of religion, race, caste or language
Art 30: Minority education
- Linguistics and religious minorities
- Can have schools of their own – state and ntl recognition
- BC not part of minority
- Right to property – state can take over with compensation
- No reservation for BC
- Can have own admission process – transparent – no capitation
- Art 350(A) – teach in mother tongue
- Art 350(B) – President shall appoint a officer to protect & promote minority
what are Smart Cities?
- A ‘smart city’ is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability.
- It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents.
- There are many technological platforms involved, including but not limited to automated sensor networks and data centres.
- In a smart city, economic development and activity is sustainable and rationally incremental by virtue of being based on success-oriented market drivers such as supply and demand.
- They benefit everybody, including citizens, businesses, the government and the environment.
What are the core infrastructure in a Smart City?
- According to the documents released on the Smart Cities website, the core infrastructure in a smart city would include:
- Adequate water supply
- Assured electricity supply
- Sanitation, including solid waste management
- Efficient urban mobility and public transport
- Affordable housing, especially for the poor
- Robust IT connectivity and digitalisation
- Good governance, especially e-Governance and citizen participation
- Sustainable environment
- Safety and security of citizens, particularly women, children and the elderly
- Health and education