Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Unnat Krishi Shiksha Scheme

It was launched to promote agricultural education.
Under the scheme 100 centres are opened with a fund of Rs.5.35 crore.
“Attracting and retaining youth in Agriculture (ARYA)” is a project sanctioned by the Indian Council of Agriculture (ICAR) and is being implemented at Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVKs).
The main objective of the project was to provide complete knowledge and skill on processing, value addition and marketing of coconut and banana products through capacity building programmes involving research and development organizations.

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Scheme: UDAAN

The programme aims to provide skills training and enhance the employability of
unemployed youth of J&K.
The scheme covers graduates, post graduates and three year engineering diploma holders.
The key stakeholders are Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), State Government (Jammu & Kashmir), Corporates and National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).

UDAAN (Giving Wings to Girl Students)
Another scheme of the same name is implemented by Ministry of Human Resource Development.
This project aims at addressing the lower enrolment of girls in engineering colleges/IITs and technological institutions.
It involves training 1000 selected girl students to compete for admission at premier Engineering colleges in India by providing course in an online and offline format.
The girl students enrolled in classes XI of KVs/NVs/other Government run Schools
affiliated to any Board in India are eligible for the Scheme.

Krishi Vigyan Kendras

  1. Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) are agricultural extension centers created by ICAR to provide various types of farm support to the agricultural sector.
    It is created to serve as a single window mechanism for addressing the technology needs
    of farmers and acts as a link among researchers, extension functionaries like NGOs and
    farmers.
    The farm support includes farm advisory service including climate resilient
    technologies,training programme for NGOs and front line demonstration and on Farm
    testing.
    KVK operates under the administrative control of State Agricultural University(SAU) or
    central institute.

Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on farmers in India.

Approach:
● Introduce with what is globalisation
● Positives and Negative impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture
● What measures were taken to safeguard farmers
● Way forward

Answer:
Globalization aims at integrating national economy with that of the world. Increased free and open international trade, foreign investment, technology exchange etc. are all integral to the globalised world. Globalisation had a significant impact on Indian agriculture – in many good and some bad ways.

Positive Impact of globalisation:
Economic impact: Globalisation enabled greater access to technological advancements in
agriculture, including high yield varieties, genetically modified crops (GM crops) and micro-irrigation techniques. Foreign investment in agriculture in contract farming, cold storage and food processing have helped farmers. Access to foreign markets has greatly boosted Indian agricultural exports.
Social impact: Globalisation helped improve food productivity and production and helped transform rural agrarian societies. It has empowered the farmers to understand, reach out and compete in global markets. The new technologies, especially in irrigation, helped in addressing rural water stress and keeping agriculture viable. It has also helped change the agrarian society’s attitudes towards new technologies in farming.

Negative Impact of globalisation:
Economic impact: Multi National Companies (MNCs) captured the Indian markets making farmers dependent on the expensive high yield seeds and fertilizers. Attraction of global market resulted in farmers shifting from traditional or mixed cropping to unsustainable cropping practices. The competition from cheaper imports pushed down the prices of crops like cotton, wheat etc making agriculture unsustainable for many farmers.
Social impact: Unsustainable agriculture practices post-globalisation and the inability to
compete against cheaper imports contributed to distress migration of rural farmers, destroying rural agrarian societies and traditional family structures. The dependency of MNC seeds resulted in farmers losing touch with indigenous seeds and farming methods. Globalisation caused change in food habits with increased consumption of proteins, sugars and fats causing increase in lifestyle diseases.

In light of certain harmful impact of globalisation, government has taken many steps to safeguard the farmers from globalisation including:

● Negotiating at the WTO for fairer rules and trade practices
● Imposing higher duties on imports to safeguard farmers from import surges
● Higher MSPs for farmers to protect against fall in prices due to cheaper imports
● Promotion of Indian produce through GI tags & organic foods
● Encourage sustainable agricultural practices, indigenous breeds and seeds

Way forward:
More than 50 per cent of Indian population is still dependent on agriculture as the main source of income. In this era of globalisation, the farmer not only needs to be protected from the harmful impact of globalisation, but also needs to be empowered through institutional and infrastructural reform to take full advantage of it.

What are the various forms in which gender based violence manifests. Discuss the causes that lead to it. Do you agree that it remains biggest impediment to the advancement of women in India?

Approach:
● Introduce with what gender violence is
● Talk about various forms of violence – preferably under different categories
● Talk about the causes – can break it into various categories.
● Discuss aspects of women development that get affected by gender violence
● Conclude by summarizing and giving brief suggestions to end gender violence.

Answer:
Gender based violence is primarily used to refer to acts of violence committed against women.
A result of unequal distribution of power in society between women and men, it gets
manifested throughout the entire lifecycle of the women- right from the womb of the mother till death.

Takes place in many forms:
Gender based violence takes place in many forms, including physical violence – through assault, domestic violence, honour killings; sexual violence – groping, workplace harassment, sexual assault; verbal violence – through use of abusive and filthy language; social violence – like humiliating a woman or her family in public; emotional violence– by depriving women of love , care , concern; financial violence – by depriving basic financial means.

Various causes of gender based violence includes:
Socio-Cultural factors:
● The patriarchal notions of ownership over women’s bodies, sexuality, labor,
reproductive rights, mobility and level of autonomy encourage violence against women.
● Dogmatic religious beliefs with deep-rooted ideas of male superiority are also used to
legitimize control over women.
Economic factors:
● Poverty, lack of education and livelihood opportunities, and inadequate access to basic
services like shelter, food, water can increase exposure to gender violence, including
forced prostitution or survival sex.
Legal-Administrative factors:
● Inadequate legal framework, State’s inability to enforce laws, unequal access to justice,
gender bias in legal institutions and mechanisms, slow justice system result in culture of
impunity for violence and abuse .
Individual factors:
● Threat/fear of stigma, isolation and social exclusion and exposure to further violence at
the hands of the perpetrator, the community or the authorities, including arrest,
detention, ill-treatment and punishment force women to suffer silently.
Yes, gender violence is one of the biggest hurdles in women’s advancement due to following factors:
● It seriously affects all aspects of women’s health- physical, sexual and reproductive,
mental and behavioural health, thus prevents them from realizing their full potential.
● Violence and threat of violence affects women’s ability to participate actively, and as
equals, in many forms of social and political relationships.
● Workplace harassment and domestic violence has an impact on women’s participation
in workforce and their economic empowerment.
● Sexual harassment limits the educational opportunities and achievements of girls.
Thus, half of our human capital will not be able to realize its true potential till gender violence is curbed in all its forms. The underlying causes must be addressed though adequate legal framework and its strict enforcement, building institutional capability, along with gender sensitization campaigns to change attitudes towards women.

Everything about INS Kalvari

INS Kalvari

• INS Kalvari is a Scorpene-class submarine described as a “deadly predator”.

• It is one of six built by Mazagon Dock Limited in Mumbai as a part of Project-75 of the Indian Navy.

• Kalvariis a potent Man o’ War capable of undertaking offensive operations spanning across the entire spectrum of Maritime Warfare.

• Kalvari is named after a deep sea tiger shark and weighs about 1,600 tonnes.

• The state-of-the-art features of the Scorpenes include superior stealth and ability to launch crippling attacks with precision-guided weapons.

• The boat also has two 1250 kW MAN diesel engines for rapidly charging batteries.

• The submarine boasts of a highly advanced Combat Management System and a sophisticated Integrated Platform Management System.

• India has just about 15 submarines, a mix of Russian-origin Kilo-class vessels and German HDW submarines.

Everything about special courts for politicians

• The Centre has informed the Supreme Court that it will set up at least 12 special courts to try exclusively criminal cases involving MPs and MLAs.

Issues

• Criminalisation of politics has remained a key issue. In 2014, as many as 1,581 lawmakers were facing prosecution in a mind-boggling 13,500 cases.

• It took years, probably decades, to complete the trial against a politician and by this time, he or she would have served as a Minister or legislator several times over.

• On average, 4,200 cases are handled by each of the 17,000 subordinate courts hence there is need to set up special courts.

Special Courts

• The SC had in 2015 laid down that special courts to be set up exclusively to try criminal cases involving “political persons” on the lines of the fast track courts and decide cases within a year.

• However Centre argued that it is not averse to setting up special courts to try criminal cases/offences involving politicians. It was for the state governments to set up additional courts as the issue comes within their jurisdiction.

• Hence setting up special courts would depend on the availability of funds with the States. And this has delayed the overall process.

Recent SC direction

• In November-2017, hearing a PIL which sought a lifetime ban on all convicted politicians, Court made determined effort to cleanse politics of criminality and corruption.

• Countering Centre argument on fund availability for special courts, Supreme Court gave direction to the  government to frame a Central scheme for setting up special courts across the country.

• The scheme should give the details of the funds that are required to set up such courts.

• The court also directed the Centre to place before it details of 1,581 cases involving MPs and MLAs, as declared by the politicians at the time of filing their nominations during the 2014 general elections.

• Supreme Court would directly interact with the State governments on issues like the appointment of judicial officers, public prosecutors, court staff and other requirements of manpower and infrastructure for the special courts.

Centre’s response and Scheme

• In response to SC direction, the government, in an affidavit, said it had allotted ₹7.8 crore and framed a scheme to set up the special courts.

• The Centre told the SC today that it will start with 12 such special courts.

• Hence it also sought some time from the Supreme Court to collect data on cases pending against elected representatives across the country, so it can better decide on how many special courts it needs to set up in total.

Election Commission’s view

• SC also pulled up the EC for not taking a stand on the issue and asked how the commission could afford to be silent on it.

• In response, EC said, it had already recommended to the Centre to amend an existing law to incorporate a life ban provision against convicted lawmakers. The existing law calls for a six-year ban after the lawmaker has completed their sentence.

• EC said for the first time that convicted MPs and MLAs must be debarred from contesting polls – ever.

• However the Centre refused to take a stand on the issue and said that the the government was examining the recommendations of the Law Commission and EC for imposing a life ban on convicted MPs and MLAs from electoral politics.

• During a hearing, the EC told the court that a law was needed to curb the growing menace of criminalisation of politics.