Right to Freedom of religion

Right to Freedom of religion Art 25:  P3 -Profess,Practice,Propagate Conscience – inner freedom Profess -declare openly Practice – rituals and use signs Propagate – spread but not force Opinion & belief – no state interference Conduct & practice – state can Art 26: Religious denomination  Est. institutions for religion and charity Manage its affairs Right to property Administer its property […]

Nature Conservation – International Treaties

Nature Conservation

Under Biodiversity conservation scheme, there are two main subcomponents

  • Bio Diversity
  • Bio Safety

 Bio Diversity

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

  • Legally binding
  • Aichi target 
  • India enacted the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 to give effect to the provisions of CBD.
  • National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was created to implement the provisions of BDA, 2002.
    • Located at Chennai
    • Autonomous body
    • Statutory body
    • Regulatory body
    • Decentralized – national, state and local
  • Nagoya protocol 
    • Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS)
    • Adopted under the aegis of CBD
    • Legally binding

 

Bio Safety

  • Cartagena Bio safety protocol
    • Under the aegis of CBD
    • Legally binding
    • Safe transfer, handling and use of Living Modified Organisms (LMO) resulting from modern biotech that may have adverse effect
    • Seeks to protect the world from GMOs resulting from modern biotech.
    • Advanced Informed Agreement – procedure to LMOs across border

CITES ( Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)

  • CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
  • Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs.
  • It is an international agreement to which States (countries) adhere voluntarily. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level.

Right to equality  

Right to equality   Art 14 : Law  Equal before law   Negative English const Absence of any privileges Law is supreme authority – govt subjected to law Art 361 (exception for president and governor) Dicey No punishment unless law violated Every one equal before law without discrimination Law is the superior – const is superior in […]

Cultural and Educational Rights 

Cultural and Educational Rights

Art 29: Minorities interest 

  • Protect identity
  • Unity in diversity
  • Majority and minority
  • State can’t deny admission in edu on grounds of religion, race, caste or language

 Art 30: Minority education 

  • Linguistics and religious minorities
  • Can have schools of their own – state and ntl recognition
  • BC not part of minority
  • Right to property – state can take over with compensation
  • No reservation for BC
  • Can have own admission process – transparent – no capitation
  • Art 350(A) – teach in mother tongue
  • Art 350(B) – President shall appoint a officer to protect & promote minority

Smart Cities

what are Smart Cities?

  • A ‘smart city’ is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability.
  • It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents.
  • There are many technological platforms involved, including but not limited to automated sensor networks and data centres.
  • In a smart city, economic development and activity is sustainable and rationally incremental by virtue of being based on success-oriented market drivers such as supply and demand.
  • They benefit everybody, including citizens, businesses, the government and the environment.

What are the core infrastructure in a Smart City?

  • According to the documents released on the Smart Cities website, the core infrastructure in a smart city would include:
  • Adequate water supply
  • Assured electricity supply
  • Sanitation, including solid waste management
  • Efficient urban mobility and public transport
  • Affordable housing, especially for the poor
  • Robust IT connectivity and digitalisation
  • Good governance, especially e-Governance and citizen participation
  • Sustainable environment
  • Safety and security of citizens, particularly women, children and the elderly
  • Health and education

Everything about CORAL BLEACHING:

CORAL BLEACHING:

  • Bleaching occurs when abnormal environmental conditions, such as warmer sea temperatures, cause corals to expel tiny photosynthetic algae, draining them of their colour.
  • When water is too warm, corals will expel the algae (zooxanthellae) living in their tissues causing the coral to turn completely white. This is called coral bleaching.
  • Algae are vital to the coral. Corals use the organic products of photosynthesis produced by algae to help it grow.
  • The loss of algae makes the host vulnerable to disease and means it will eventually die.
  • However, coral can recover if the water temperature drops and the algae are able to re-colonise them.
  • When a coral bleaches, it is not dead. Corals can survive a bleaching event, but if they are subject to more stress, they can eventually die.

CAUSES:

  • Environmentalists blame the burning of fossil fuels for global warming.
  • Farm run-off which is rich in fertilizers and other chemicals.
  • Development activities.
  •  The coral-eating starfish
  • Disease outbreaks

 The Need To Preserve Corals:

  • To protect coastlines from the damaging effects of wave action and tropical storms
  • To provide habitats and shelter for many marine organisms
  • Corals are the source of nitrogen and other essential nutrients for marine food chains
  • They assist in carbon and nitrogen fixing
  • They also help with nutrient recycling.
  • The fishing industry depends on coral reefs because many fish spawn there and juvenile fish spend time there before making their way to the open sea
  • The Great Barrier Reef are also important for the economy and tourism.
  • The study of coral reefs is important for providing a clear, scientifically-testable record of climatic events over the past million years or so. This includes records of recent major storms and human impacts that are recorded by the changes in coral growth patterns.