Jyotiba Phule

Born: 11 April, 1827 Passed Away: 28 November, 1890 Originally Jyotirao's family belonged to 'mali' caste, considered as inferior by the Brahmins. Jyotiba Phule devoted his entire life for the liberation of untouchables from the exploitation of Brahmins. He revolted against the tyranny of the upper castes.  Contributions  Jyotiba Phule was one of the prominent social reformers … Continue reading Jyotiba Phule

Asian Nature Conservation Foundation:

Asian Nature Conservation Foundation: It was established in 1997 as a charitable trust. It has its headquarters at the Innovation Centre office of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. It is a small group of conservation scientists, planners, information managers and administrators working together to support the conservation of biological diversity in India. It is … Continue reading Asian Nature Conservation Foundation:

Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES):

Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES): It is the preeminent annual entrepreneurship gathering that convenes emerging entrepreneurs, investors and supporters from around the world. It was started by U.S. government in 2010. It serves as a vital link between governments and the private sector, and convenes global participants to showcase projects, network, exchange ideas, and champion new … Continue reading Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES):

Everything about OIL SPILL

OIL SPILL:  An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon or naturally extracted oil into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity and is a form of pollution. Remedies: 1.Dispersant: Dispersants are chemicals that when applied to oil floating on the surface greatly increases the rate of dispersal and breakdown … Continue reading Everything about OIL SPILL

Tropic of Capricorn 

Tropic of Capricorn passes through below countries S America - Argentina Brazil Chile Paraguay Africa - Namibia Botswana S Africa Mozambique Madagascar Oceania  Australia

Evetything about Organic Farming

Organic Farming Organic farming is a combination of tradition, innovation and science. It is a production system that relies on the use of natural inputs that are suitable to local environment, rather than using synthetic chemicals with adverse effects. In the transition from conventional to organic farming, synthetic chemical fertilizers are replaced with natural inputs … Continue reading Evetything about Organic Farming

What is ‘Swiss challenge’ approach?

Swiss challenge method is a process of giving contracts. Any person with credentials can submit a development proposal to the government. That proposal will be made online and a second person can give suggestions to improve and beat that proposal. It is a method where third parties make offers (challenges) for a project within a … Continue reading What is ‘Swiss challenge’ approach?

Right against Exploitation 

Right against Exploitation Art 23: Forced labor/ Traffic  No forced labor - slavery - servitude No trafficking State can force for public interest conscription punishable Art 24: Child labor  Punishable < 14 - no hazardous and non hazardous regulated by state The government had brought a new law to govern child labour, known as the … Continue reading Right against Exploitation 

Bharat Standard Norms

Bharat Standard Norms Introduced in the year 2000, the Bharat norms are emission control standards put in place by the government to keep a check on air pollution. Based on the European regulations (Euro norms), these standards set specifications/limits for the release of air pollutants from equipment using internal combustion engines, including vehicles. Typically, the … Continue reading Bharat Standard Norms

Air Pollution – Particulate Matter

Fine Particles, Particulate Matter 2.5: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant that is a concern for people's health when levels in air are high. PM2.5 are tiny particles in the air that reduce visibility and cause the air to appear hazy when levels are elevated. Outdoor PM2.5 levels are most likely to be … Continue reading Air Pollution – Particulate Matter

Commodity and Exchanges

What is a commodity? Commodities are products that can be bought, sold or traded in different kinds of markets. Commodities are the raw materials that are used to create products which are consumed in everyday life around the world, from food products in India to building new homes in Europe or to running cars in … Continue reading Commodity and Exchanges

Right to Freedom 

Right to Freedom Art 19(1) - Democratic rights Speech and expression  Art 19(1)(a) and Art 21 - inalienable disjunct Express your view, right to listen, any communicable medium Express others view Right to know Press freedom Elect/reject candidate based on informed choices Dissent - criticize govt ITA 2000 - Sec 66A - chilling effect Defamation … Continue reading Right to Freedom 

International Treaties fro Hazardous Substance Management

Hazardous Substance Management To promote safe management and use of hazardous substance in order to avoid damage to the health and env. International conventions Basel convention - control the transboundary mvmt of hazardous waste Non binding agreement Reduce the movement of hazardous waste between nations Prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed country USA, … Continue reading International Treaties fro Hazardous Substance Management

About the Direct Benefit Transfer

The program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts. Crediting subsidies directly into bank accounts help reduce leakages, delays, etc. DBT has now extended to most of the government schemes. DBT has two components: Subsidy: When a government meets a part of the cost of providing a good or service to a … Continue reading About the Direct Benefit Transfer

Right to Freedom of religion

Right to Freedom of religion Art 25:  P3 -Profess,Practice,Propagate Conscience - inner freedom Profess -declare openly Practice - rituals and use signs Propagate - spread but not force Opinion & belief - no state interference Conduct & practice - state can Art 26: Religious denomination  Est. institutions for religion and charity Manage its affairs Right to property Administer its property … Continue reading Right to Freedom of religion

Nature Conservation – International Treaties

Nature Conservation Under Biodiversity conservation scheme, there are two main subcomponents Bio Diversity Bio Safety  Bio Diversity Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Legally binding Aichi target  India enacted the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 to give effect to the provisions of CBD. National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was created to implement the provisions of BDA, 2002. Located at Chennai Autonomous … Continue reading Nature Conservation – International Treaties

CITES ( Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)

CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded … Continue reading CITES ( Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)

Right to equality  

Right to equality   Art 14 : Law  Equal before law   Negative English const Absence of any privileges Law is supreme authority - govt subjected to law Art 361 (exception for president and governor) Dicey No punishment unless law violated Every one equal before law without discrimination Law is the superior - const is superior in … Continue reading Right to equality  

Cultural and Educational Rights 

Cultural and Educational Rights Art 29: Minorities interest  Protect identity Unity in diversity Majority and minority State can't deny admission in edu on grounds of religion, race, caste or language  Art 30: Minority education  Linguistics and religious minorities Can have schools of their own - state and ntl recognition BC not part of minority Right … Continue reading Cultural and Educational Rights 

Smart Cities

what are Smart Cities? A 'smart city' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. There are many technological platforms involved, including but … Continue reading Smart Cities

Everything about CORAL BLEACHING:

CORAL BLEACHING: Bleaching occurs when abnormal environmental conditions, such as warmer sea temperatures, cause corals to expel tiny photosynthetic algae, draining them of their colour. When water is too warm, corals will expel the algae (zooxanthellae) living in their tissues causing the coral to turn completely white. This is called coral bleaching. Algae are vital … Continue reading Everything about CORAL BLEACHING:

Everything about Cyberwar?

What is Cyberwar? Cyberwar is a form of war which takes places on computers and the Internet, through electronic means rather than physical ones. With an increasing global reliance on technology for everything from managing national electrical grids to ordering supplies for troops, cyberwar is a method of attack which many nations are vulnerable to. … Continue reading Everything about Cyberwar?

Everything about Surrogacy

What is surrogacy? Surrogacy is where a woman becomes pregnant with the intention of handing over the child to someone else after giving birth. Generally, she carries the baby for a couple or parent who cannot conceive a child themselves - they are known as "intended parents". There are two forms of surrogacy. In traditional … Continue reading Everything about Surrogacy

Everything about Ordinance

What is an ordinance and who makes it? Article 123 of the Indian Constitution grants the President of India to Promulgate Ordinances when either of the two Houses of the Parliament is not in session which makes it impossible for a single House to pass and enact a law. Ordinances may relate to any subject … Continue reading Everything about Ordinance

Major Air Pollutants

Major Air Pollutants Particulate matter (PM): PM affects more people than any other pollutant. The major components of PM are sulfate, nitrates, ammonia, sodium chloride, black carbon, mineral dust and water. It consists of a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air. The most health-damaging particles … Continue reading Major Air Pollutants

Angel Investors VS Venture Capital

Business Angel Investors are individuals, often successful business people who are investing their own personal funds into a potentially rewarding business opportunity. Whereas Venture Capital is invested by firms or companies that use other people's money. They raise that money by offering investors a chance to take part in a fund that is then used … Continue reading Angel Investors VS Venture Capital

Cyber attack – ransomware , NotPetya

It is a malicious software that blocks access to computers and data until a sum of money is paid. NotPetya is the second major global ransomware since WannaCry, which had infected about 3,00,000 computers across 200 countries in May. Similar to WannaCry, one of the means by which Petya spread was by exploiting the MS12-010 … Continue reading Cyber attack – ransomware , NotPetya

What is Seagrasses? 

Seagrasses are flowering plants that form dense underwater beds in shallow water. Distinct from seaweed, the plants provide shelter and food for a large range of animals, including fish, marine mammals and birds. Many seagrass meadows have been lost because of human activities, say researchers. Seagrasses are also knows as "lungs of the sea" Seagrass, which … Continue reading What is Seagrasses? 

About the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT):

The nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty came into force in 1970, following widespread international concern about the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and the spiraling nuclear weapon stocks of those states that had developed them. The NPT is a multilateral treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons including three elements: (1) non-proliferation, (2) disarmament, and … Continue reading About the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT):

In South Asia, be the Un-China Editorial 12th Aug’17 The Hindu

India-China stand-off watched by neighbourhood: The stand-off at Doklam between the Indian and Chinese militaries has entered its third month. The potential fallout is being watched by the entire neighbourhood. There is obvious interest in how the situation plays out and the consequent change in the balance of power between India and China in South … Continue reading In South Asia, be the Un-China Editorial 12th Aug’17 The Hindu

Air Pollution

Causes of air pollution: Diesel vehicles are more polluting than petrol They are high in PM, Nitrogen oxide not good for health Ban 10 year old diesel truck entering city Vehicular emissions Dust emissions from construction work, thermal power plants etc.. Burning of wastes etc.. Major pollutants: Benzene - byproduct of burning diesel. It is … Continue reading Air Pollution

Important Commitees

N.K.Singh committee To review the FRBM Act of 2003 Ratan Watal Committee On digital payments Anil Kakodkar Committee On railway safety A.K.Bhargava Net Neutrality Madhukar Gupta committee India Pakistan Border issue Aravind Subramanian Tackle shortage of pulses in India Bibek Debroy committee Railways and privatization of railways Shekatkar committee Defense Shyam Benegal committee Film certification … Continue reading Important Commitees

 Parliamentary vs Presidential System

Does India need a presidential system? Arguments :- Against Debate can be divided in to feasibility and desirability In the existing constitutional scheme, change is not possible. Supreme court of India already held parliamentary form of Government as part of the basic structure of the constitution. Presidential system centralizes power and chances of it turning in … Continue reading  Parliamentary vs Presidential System

What is Article 35A of Constitution: Jammu and Kashmir 

Article 35A Article 35A gives the Jammu and Kashmir legislature the power to define the “permanent residents” of the state and provide them with special rights and privileges. Article 35A offers special privileges to state subjects of J&K in matters related to employment, acquisition of immovable property, settlements and scholarships in relation to Article 370 … Continue reading What is Article 35A of Constitution: Jammu and Kashmir 

Neutrino and Indian Neutrino Observatory

Neutrino Very similar to electrons Second most abundant particles after photon Don’t carry any charge Are not massless Neutrinos are miniscule particles created in nuclear reactions, such as in the birth and death of sun and the stars, or in nuclear power plants. Neutrinos interact with matter via the weak force. The weakness of this … Continue reading Neutrino and Indian Neutrino Observatory

EXIM Bank

Export–Import Bank of India was established in 1982 under the Export-Import Bank of India Act 1981. Since its inception, Exim Bank of India has been both a catalyst and a key player in the promotion of cross border trade and investment. Over the period, it has evolved into an institution that plays a major role … Continue reading EXIM Bank

Bitcoin

Bitcoin is a digital currency that is not supported by any country’s government or central bank. It can be traded for services or goods with sellers who accept bitcoins as payment. Bitcoin was first  introduced in October 2008. It was invented by an unidentified programmer, or group of programmers, under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto. The system … Continue reading Bitcoin

WRITS Under Article 32

Literal Meaning Habeas Corpus - to have the body of Mandamus - command/order to do the duty to public official Prohibition - to forbid higher court to lower court - prevent from exceeding the jurisdiction (in between the trial) Certiorari - to be certified - superior court to inferior court to squash the order or … Continue reading WRITS Under Article 32

Market Stabilization Bond

MSS bonds bear an interest rate that can boost banks’ income. This incentivizes banks to participate effectively in demonetization drive. MSS as SLR bonds: MSS bonds can also be used to calculate banks’ mandatory bond holding. MSS bonds does not increase Government’s fiscal deficit. According to CRISIL, the stock of G-secs with the RBI, necessary … Continue reading Market Stabilization Bond

Pulikkali festival – Kerala

Pulikkali festival Pulikkali is a colorful recreational folk art from the state of Kerala. It is performed by trained artists to entertain people on the occasion of Onam, an annual harvest festival, celebrated mainly in Kerala. On the fourth day of Onam celebrations (Nalaam Onam), performers painted like tigers and hunters in bright yellow, red, and … Continue reading Pulikkali festival – Kerala

Monetary Policy Committee

MPC is headed by RBI governor, is a six-member panel, of which three members are from RBI and three are independent members selected by government. The independent members are experts in the field of economics, banking or finance. The governor, however, will not enjoy a veto power to overrule the other panel members, but will … Continue reading Monetary Policy Committee

Gangetic Dolphin

Dolphins are one of the oldest creatures in the world along with some species of turtles, crocodiles and sharks. Platanista gangetica , the biological name of the Gangetic river dolphin, also called the “blind” river dolphin or the “side-swimming dolphin” is unique to India and an endangered species. Ganges river dolphins once lived in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu … Continue reading Gangetic Dolphin

Amur Falcons

Amur falcons are the longest travelling raptors in the world. They weigh just 150 grams Males are mostly grey in colour and the females have dark-streaked cream or orange underparts. The species flies non-stop from Mongolia to northeast India covering 5,600 km in five days and nights, a small part of its 22,000 km circular migratory … Continue reading Amur Falcons

Everything About the Rajya Sabha

Rajyasabha Our Parliament comprises of the President and the two Houses—Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The origin of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) can be traced to the Montague-Chelmsford Report of 1918. The Government of India Act, 1919 provided for the creation of a ‘Council of State’ … Continue reading Everything About the Rajya Sabha

Navroz festival : Parsi People

It is a Parsi New Year festival. While the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle Easterns celebrate the festival on March 21, the first day of the Zoroastrian calendar, in India there is another version of the festival that is followed according to the Shahanshahi calendar and falls during the later months of the year. The dates change every year … Continue reading Navroz festival : Parsi People

Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status

What is Most Favoured Nation’ (MFN) status?  The WTO as the trade-promoting body has certain key principles or philosophical themes for its working. One such principle is non-discrimination which is well scripted in Most Favored Nation (MFN) treatment. The MFN is a status or treatment given by one country to another in trade matters. It … Continue reading Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status

WTO- Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA)

Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) envisages faster clearances and reduction of red tapism at the borders and would thereby help in the ease of doing business. TFA is bound to change the Indian trade and would bring more transparency in trade process. after TFA ratification, the world wide best trade practices would … Continue reading WTO- Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA)

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together. Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s … Continue reading International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body. UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment, and development issues.  The organization's goals are to: "maximize the trade, investment and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in … Continue reading United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

India’s first international stock exchange – India INX – GIFT, Gujarat

India’s first international exchange-India INX- was recently inaugurated by PM at International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) in Gujarat International Financial Tech City (GIFT) located in Gandhinagar. India International Exchange (INX), the wholly-owned subsidiary of the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), through its global bourse, will start trading initially in equity derivatives, currency derivatives, commodity derivatives including Index and Stocks. … Continue reading India’s first international stock exchange – India INX – GIFT, Gujarat

United Nations General Assembly -UNGA

It is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the United Nations, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, receive reports from other parts of the United Nations and make recommendations … Continue reading United Nations General Assembly -UNGA

Universal basic income

Core concept : It was proposed by left liberal political philosopher Philippe van Pari in his book real freedom for all. According to him, basis for universal basic income is the fair distribution of real freedom to pursue the realisation of ones conception of the good life. Core of the concept of basic income is … Continue reading Universal basic income

UN Secretary General

The charter is vague in defining the duties of the secretary-general, the United Nations’ top official. He or she is expected to show no favoritism to any particular country, but the office is largely dependent on the funding and goodwill of the most powerful nations. The Security Council — notably the P5 — chooses the … Continue reading UN Secretary General

GM mosquitoes

To suppress wild female Aedes aegypti mosquito populations that cause dengue, chikungunya and Zika were launched in Maharashtra’s Jalna district. The technology uses genetically modified male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that carry a dominant lethal gene. When male GM mosquitoes mate with wild female mosquitoes the lethal gene is passed on to offspring. The lethal gene in the offspring kills the … Continue reading GM mosquitoes

United Nations Security Council – UNSC

The 15-member Security Council is by far the most powerful arm of the United Nations. It can impose sanctions, as it did against Iran over its nuclear program, and authorize military intervention, as it did against Libya in 2011. Its five permanent members are the victors of World War II: the United States, Britain, China, … Continue reading United Nations Security Council – UNSC

International Court of Justice – ICJ

ICJ is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946. The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). Of the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is … Continue reading International Court of Justice – ICJ

National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)

The National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) has been constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 to provide free Legal Services to the weaker sections of the society and to organize Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes. NALSA is headed by the Chief Justice of India. In every State, State Legal Services Authority has … Continue reading National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)

World Economic Forum – WEF

It is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva. The forum was founded in 1971 by Klaus Schwab, a German-born business professor at the University of Geneva. Recognized by the Swiss authorities as the international institution for public-private cooperation, its mission is cited as "committed to improving the state of the world by engaging … Continue reading World Economic Forum – WEF

Indian Meteorological Department – IMD

The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), also referred to as the Met Department, is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India. It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology. It was established in 1875. IMD is headquartered in New Delhi and operates hundreds of observation stations across … Continue reading Indian Meteorological Department – IMD

PM National Relief Fund (PMNRF)

The fund consists entirely of public contributions and does not get any budgetary support. The corpus of the fund is invested with banks in fixed deposits. Disbursements are made with the approval of the Prime Minister. PMNRF has not been constituted by the Parliament. The fund is recognized as a Trust under the Income Tax Act … Continue reading PM National Relief Fund (PMNRF)

Biodiversity hotspots

Biodiversity hotspots? Biodiversity hotspots are a method to identify those regions of the world where attention is needed to address biodiversity loss and to guide investments in conservation. The idea was first developed by Norman Myers in 1988 to identify tropical forest ‘hotspots’ characterized both by exceptional levels of plant endemism and serious habitat loss, … Continue reading Biodiversity hotspots

What is Green Climate Fund?

What is Green Climate Fund? The Fund is a unique global platform to respond to climate change by investing in low-emission and climate-resilient development. GCF was established by 194 governments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries, and to help vulnerable societies adapt to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. Given … Continue reading What is Green Climate Fund?

National Mission for Clean Ganga

National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) is the implementation wing of National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA). It is a registered society originally formed by Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change(MoEFCC) on 12th August 2011 under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. Now both NGRBA and NMCG are allocated to the Ministry of Water Resources, … Continue reading National Mission for Clean Ganga

BIMSTEC

It is a regional organization comprising seven Member States lying in the littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal constituting a contiguous regional unity. This sub-regional organization came into being on 6 June 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration.  The regional group constitutes a bridge between South and South East Asia and represents a reinforcement … Continue reading BIMSTEC

East Asia Summit – EAS

East Asia Summit is a unique Leaders-led forum of 18 countries of the Asia-Pacific region formed to further the objectives of regional peace, security and prosperity. It has evolved as a forum for strategic dialogue and cooperation on political, security and economic issues of common regional concern and plays an important role in the regional … Continue reading East Asia Summit – EAS

G-20

G20 was initiated in 1999 and consists of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union (EU). Before the outbreak of global financial crisis in 2008, G20 meetings of Finance Ministers and … Continue reading G-20

NABARD

NABARD: It is an apex development and specialized bank established on 12 July 1982 by an act by the parliament of India. Its main focus is to uplift rural India by increasing the credit flow for elevation of agriculture & rural non farm sector. It was established based on the recommendations of the Committee set … Continue reading NABARD

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966. which is headquartered in Ortigas Center located in Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines, and maintains. It promote social and economic development in Asia. The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific … Continue reading Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Kashmir’s Red stag

In order to get more attention and protection to Kashmir’s Red stag, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has decided to put Red Stag on the critically endangered species list. It is listed under Schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and J&K Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1978 and has also been listed … Continue reading Kashmir’s Red stag

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands India is a signatory to Ramsar convention Intergovernmental treaty Conservation and wise use of wetlands and its resources Adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar Transboundary Ramsar Sites Changwon declaration - ensuring human well being Montreax Records Loktak Lake, Manipur (largest fresh water lake in NE) - Loktak Lake is the … Continue reading Ramsar Convention on Wetlands

Global Innovation Index (GII)

The Global Innovation Index (GII) aims to capture the multi-dimensional facets of innovation and provide the tools that can assist in tailoring policies to promote long-term output growth, improved productivity, and job growth. The GII helps to create an environment in which innovation factors are continually evaluated. The Global Innovation Index 2016 (GII), in its … Continue reading Global Innovation Index (GII)

United Nations – UN

The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization that promotes international cooperation and peace building. The United Nations was established after the end of WWII on the 24th of October 1945 in order to prevent a similar global conflict from ever reoccurring. The United Nations replaced the ineffective League of Nations, which was created after the … Continue reading United Nations – UN

Islamic Development Bank

The Islamic Development Bank is an international financial institution established in pursuance of the Declaration of Intent issued by the Conference of Finance Ministers of Muslim Countries held in Jeddah in December 1973, and the Bank was formally opened on 20 October 1975. The purpose of the Bank is to foster the economic development and … Continue reading Islamic Development Bank

International Organizations: UNHRC

It is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and make recommendations on them. It meets at the UN Office at Geneva. The Council is made up of 47 United Nations Member States … Continue reading International Organizations: UNHRC

Principles of Just recourse to War

​Principles of Just recourse to war • Last resort • Just cause • Legitimate authority • Right intentin • Reasonable prospect of success • Proportionality

NATO

Formed in 1949 with the signing of the Washington Treaty, NATO is a security alliance of 28 countries from North America and Europe. NATO’s fundamental goal is to safeguard the Allies’ freedom and security by political and military means. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence … Continue reading NATO

Olive ridley Turtles

Also known as the Pacific ridley sea turtle, Olive turtles are a medium-sized species of sea turtle found in warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are best known for their behavior of synchronized nesting in mass numbers. Known as aribada The olive ridley is classified as Vulnerable according to … Continue reading Olive ridley Turtles

Cashless Payment : Bharat QR

India has reached a new milestone in cashless transaction by launching BharatQR, the world’s first interoperable payment acceptance solution. This is the second big ticket initiative from the Centre, after BHIM, towards pushing digital transactions.    What is BharatQR code? BharatQR code is an interoperable payment acceptance solution. Even if the merchant and customer are on different … Continue reading Cashless Payment : Bharat QR

Sumatran Rhino

Critically endangered species Smallest of all rhinos and the only Asian variety with two horns They are born covered in shaggy, reddish brown fur Its nick name is Hairy rhino They once roamed the vast, dense forests of Sumatra, Borneo and Malaysia but land-clearing and poaching have devastated their numbers. In Sumatra, there are also small … Continue reading Sumatran Rhino

UNESCO : Yoga in the representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

Yoga, India’s one of the ancient practices has now been inscribed as an element in the UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of humanity. Yoga has become the 13th intangible cultural heritage that has been listed from India so far with UNESCO. Previous ones includes the Chhau dance (Inscribed in 2010), the Buddhist chanting of … Continue reading UNESCO : Yoga in the representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

National Agriculture Market: NAM

National Agriculture Market  PM Modi recently launched an electronic mandi to help farmers sell their produce online and do away with the problems many farmers face in agricultural markets. National Agriculture Market (NAM) has been incorporated by the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation. This e-platform aims to provide more options to farmers to sell their produce and is … Continue reading National Agriculture Market: NAM

Index of Industrial Production (IIP)

The Eight Core Industries comprise nearly 38 % of the weight of items included in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP). They are: Coal (weight: 4.38 %) Crude Oil(weight: 5.22 %) The Natural Gas(weight: 1.71 %) Petroleum Refinery (weight: 5.94%) Fertilizer (weight: 1.25%) Steel (weight: 6.68%) Cement (weight: 2.41%) Electricity generation (weight: 10.32%) - max weightage … Continue reading Index of Industrial Production (IIP)

What is Wholesale Price Index (WPI) ?

Wholesale Price Index (WPI) WPI measures the change in price level at wholesale market. WPI – consists of 676 commodities (services are not included in WPI in India). It is measured on year-on-year basis i.e., rate of change in price level in a given month vis a vis corresponding month of last year. This is also … Continue reading What is Wholesale Price Index (WPI) ?

What is Mission Indradhanush?

What is Mission Indradhanush? Mission Indradhanush aimed to revamp the functioning of public sector banks so that PSBs can compete with the Private Sector Banks. The mission is a brainchild of PJ Nayak committee. It is launched by Ministry of Finance under the Department of Financial Services. The mission is regarded as one of the … Continue reading What is Mission Indradhanush?

​Thucydides quotes for Realist Foreign Policy

​Thucydides quotes The bravest are surely those who have the clearest vision of what is before them, glory and danger alike, and yet notwithstanding, go out to meet it. The secret to happiness is freedom... And the secret to freedom is courage. Be convinced that to be happy means to be free and that to … Continue reading ​Thucydides quotes for Realist Foreign Policy