Jyotiba Phule

  • Born: 11 April, 1827
  • Passed Away: 28 November, 1890
  • Originally Jyotirao’s family belonged to ‘mali’ caste, considered as inferior by the Brahmins.
  • Jyotiba Phule devoted his entire life for the liberation of untouchables from the exploitation of Brahmins.
  • He revolted against the tyranny of the upper castes.

 Contributions 

  • Jyotiba Phule was one of the prominent social reformers of the nineteenth century India.
  • He led the movement against the prevailing caste-restrictions in India.
  • He revolted against the domination of the Brahmins and for the rights of peasants and other low-caste fellow.
  • Jyotiba Phule was believed to be the first Hindu to start an orphanage for the unfortunate children.

 Movement

  • In 1848, Jyotirao was insulted at a wedding as he belonged to inferior caste and then he made up his mind to defy the prevailing caste-system and social restrictions.
  • He then started his campaign of serving the people of lower caste who were deprived of all their rights as human beings.
  • The orthodox Brahmins of the society blamed him for vitiating the norms and regulations of the society.
  • Jyotirao attacked the orthodox Brahmins and other upper castes and termed them as “hypocrites”.
  • He campaigned against the authoritarianism of the upper caste people. He urged the “peasants” and “proletariat” to defy the restrictions imposed upon them.
  • Jyotiba established a girls’ school and asked his wife to teach the girls in the school.
  • Jyotirao, later, opened two more schools for the girls and an indigenous school for the lower castes, especially the Mahars and Mangs.
  • Viewing the pathetic condition of widows and unfortunate children Jyotirao established an orphanage in 1854.

 Satya Shodhak Samaj 

  • Jyotirao blamed the Brahmins for framing the weird and inhuman laws. He concluded that the laws were made to suppress the “shudras” and rule over them.
  • In 1873, Jyotiba Phule formed the Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth).
  • The purpose of the organization was to liberate the people of lower-castes from the suppression of the Brahmins.
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Asian Nature Conservation Foundation:

Asian Nature Conservation Foundation:

  • It was established in 1997 as a charitable trust.
  • It has its headquarters at the Innovation Centre office of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
  • It is a small group of conservation scientists, planners, information managers and administrators working together to support the conservation of biological diversity in India.
  • It is actively involved in the conservation of the Asian Elephant, considered to be a keystone species in the biologically rich forests of South and Southeast Asia.

Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES):

Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES):

  • It is the preeminent annual entrepreneurship gathering that convenes emerging entrepreneurs, investors and supporters from around the world.
  • It was started by U.S. government in 2010.
  • It serves as a vital link between governments and the private sector, and convenes global participants to showcase projects, network, exchange ideas, and champion new opportunities for investment.
  • Its aims to highlight entrepreneurship as means to address some of the most intractable global challenges.

GES-2017, Hyderabad:

  • It will be the eighth annual GES summit.
  • It will be the first GES summit to be held in South Asia.
  • Since 2010, it has been hosted by Kenya, Morocco, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Malaysia and last year it was held in Silicon Valley in the US.
  • The Theme of GES-2017 is ‘Women First, Prosperity for All’, the main focus will be on supporting women entrepreneurs and fostering economic growth globally.

Areas of main focus:

The GES 2017 will focus on four key industry sectors:

  1. Energy and Infrastructure.
  2. Healthcare and Life Sciences.
  3. Financial Technology and Digital Economy.
  4. Media and Entertainment

India’s new role:

  • The event will highlight India’s enabling environment for innovation and entrepreneurship.
  • Through two and half days of training and mentoring sessions, networking, and investment matchmaking, the United States and India will forge new collaborations and launch new initiatives, while reducing the barriers inhibiting international growth and innovation.

Everything about OIL SPILL

OIL SPILL: 

An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon or naturally extracted oil into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity and is a form of pollution.

Remedies:

1.Dispersant:

  • Dispersants are chemicals that when applied to oil floating on the surface greatly increases the rate of dispersal and breakdown of the oil. Dispersants assist the natural process where the mechanical action of the water can break down oil into small droplets.
  • Dispersants are categorised into:

Type 1: Hydrocarbon solvent-based dispersant used undiluted

Type 2: Concentrates, diluted 1:10 with water before use

Type 3: High efficacy concentrates used undiluted

2.Demulsifiers

  • These are chemicals used to separate oil and water. They can be used with dispersants when the type of oil prevents chemical dispersion.

3.Surface cleaners

  • Surface cleaners are chemicals that when applied to oil covered hard surfaces increase the rate of dispersal from the surface, aiding cleaning.

4.Bioremediation products

  • Bioremediation accelerates the natural degradation process through adding nutrients, micro-organisms, or both.

5.Oil Zapping:

  • Oil Zapping is a bio-remediation technique involving the use of ‘oil zapping’ bacteria.
  • The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) has developed the oil zapping bacteria.
  • The Oil Zapping project was supported by the Department of Biotechnology (Government of India) and the Ministry of Science and Technology.
  • There are five different bacterial strains that are immobilized and mixed with a carrier material such as powdered corncob. This mixture of five bacteria is called Oil Zapper.
  • Oilzapper feeds on hydrocarbon compounds present in crude oil and the hazardous hydrocarbon waste generated by oil refineries, known as Oil Sludge and converts them into harmless CO2 and water.
  • The Oilzapper is neatly packed into sterile polythene bags and sealed aseptically for safe transport. The shelf life of the product is three months at ambient temperature.

6.Sorbents

  • Sorbents absorb oil and are usually in the form of powder, granules or beads.
  • They are either absorbent (they take some liquid into themselves) or adsorbent (forms a layer on the surface of the oil) materials and can be synthetic or natural, packaged or loose.

7.Degreasers

  • Degreasers are used for cleaning grease from machinery of ships and marine structures

Evetything about Organic Farming

Organic Farming

  • Organic farming is a combination of tradition, innovation and science.
  • It is a production system that relies on the use of natural inputs that are suitable to local environment, rather than using synthetic chemicals with adverse effects.
  • In the transition from conventional to organic farming, synthetic chemical fertilizers are replaced with natural inputs and bio-materials like organic manures, neem cake, cow dung, and chemical pesticides are replaced with neem oil and bio- pesticides.

 Types of Orgnaic Manures:

  • Farm yard manure                              -  Crop Residues
  • Green manure                                   - Bio-fertilisers
  • Vermi-compost

Benefits of Organic Farming:

  • Inputs for organic farming are cheaper and yields fetch premium price on crops leading to higher returns to the farmer.
  • Improvement in soil health and fertility.
  • Promotes efficient use of water resources and decreases water pollution.
  • Beneficial to the environment: Decrease in GHGs like nitrous oxide as there is no use of chemical fertilizers.
  • Organic food is free of toxic materials that otherwise make way to the food chain.

Constrains of Organic Farming:

  • Lack of technical support: Organic farming needs dedicated guidance for implementation.
  • Decrease in income (initially): For farmers the activity is less profitable initially due to decrease in yields during conversion period.
  • Lack about market information: Organic farmers are dependent on urban markets & export markets and accessing such markets requires contracts with large companies. The small organic farmer are unable to reach those who are paying more for organic products.
  • Questions on the safety of organic food: The organics industry is young and not well-regulated in India. The farmers lack knowledge about the products that are not to be used in farms. For example farmers often use farmyard manure which may contain toxic chemicals and heavy metals. This can compromise the quality of food and may have an adverse impact on the health of consumers.

 Solutions:

  • Encouragement for organic farming should be supported by financial incentives during the first three years and assurance of a better market for the produce.
  • Collective farming: There is a need to organize farmers in a way that they can enter into contracts and demand a fair price from global companies.
  • Providing ease in obtaining organic certification.
  • Instead of going “full organic” in one go ,farmers can be educated about eco-friendly food that will allow the use of limited agrochemicals within safe levels.

What is ‘Swiss challenge’ approach?

Swiss challenge method is a process of giving contracts. Any person with credentials can submit a development proposal to the government. That proposal will be made online and a second person can give suggestions to improve and beat that proposal.

  • It is a method where third parties make offers (challenges) for a project within a designated period to avoid exaggerated project costs.

Swiss model: 

The government plans to adopt the ‘Swiss Challenge’ mode to invite bids for redeveloping the stations.

How Swiss model operates? 

  • First, the government will invite developers to submit their master plans.
  • After evaluating the proposals, the selected design will be uploaded over the Ministry of Railways website.
  • Financial bids will be invited and the developer quoting the highest upfront premium to be paid to the government will win the bid.
  • However, the project developer, who had originally submitted the plan, will be given an opportunity to match the bid amount.

The government will also ensure that the developer has prior experience in the field of passenger transportation such as railway stations, airports or ports or construction experience in the core sector.