Asian Nature Conservation Foundation:
- It was established in 1997 as a charitable trust.
- It has its headquarters at the Innovation Centre office of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
- It is a small group of conservation scientists, planners, information managers and administrators working together to support the conservation of biological diversity in India.
- It is actively involved in the conservation of the Asian Elephant, considered to be a keystone species in the biologically rich forests of South and Southeast Asia.
Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES):
- It is the preeminent annual entrepreneurship gathering that convenes emerging entrepreneurs, investors and supporters from around the world.
- It was started by U.S. government in 2010.
- It serves as a vital link between governments and the private sector, and convenes global participants to showcase projects, network, exchange ideas, and champion new opportunities for investment.
- Its aims to highlight entrepreneurship as means to address some of the most intractable global challenges.
- It will be the eighth annual GES summit.
- It will be the first GES summit to be held in South Asia.
- Since 2010, it has been hosted by Kenya, Morocco, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Malaysia and last year it was held in Silicon Valley in the US.
- The Theme of GES-2017 is ‘Women First, Prosperity for All’, the main focus will be on supporting women entrepreneurs and fostering economic growth globally.
Areas of main focus:
The GES 2017 will focus on four key industry sectors:
- Energy and Infrastructure.
- Healthcare and Life Sciences.
- Financial Technology and Digital Economy.
- Media and Entertainment
India’s new role:
- The event will highlight India’s enabling environment for innovation and entrepreneurship.
- Through two and half days of training and mentoring sessions, networking, and investment matchmaking, the United States and India will forge new collaborations and launch new initiatives, while reducing the barriers inhibiting international growth and innovation.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon or naturally extracted oil into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity and is a form of pollution.
- Dispersants are chemicals that when applied to oil floating on the surface greatly increases the rate of dispersal and breakdown of the oil. Dispersants assist the natural process where the mechanical action of the water can break down oil into small droplets.
- Dispersants are categorised into:
Type 1: Hydrocarbon solvent-based dispersant used undiluted
Type 2: Concentrates, diluted 1:10 with water before use
Type 3: High efficacy concentrates used undiluted
- These are chemicals used to separate oil and water. They can be used with dispersants when the type of oil prevents chemical dispersion.
- Surface cleaners are chemicals that when applied to oil covered hard surfaces increase the rate of dispersal from the surface, aiding cleaning.
- Bioremediation accelerates the natural degradation process through adding nutrients, micro-organisms, or both.
- Oil Zapping is a bio-remediation technique involving the use of ‘oil zapping’ bacteria.
- The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) has developed the oil zapping bacteria.
- The Oil Zapping project was supported by the Department of Biotechnology (Government of India) and the Ministry of Science and Technology.
- There are five different bacterial strains that are immobilized and mixed with a carrier material such as powdered corncob. This mixture of five bacteria is called Oil Zapper.
- Oilzapper feeds on hydrocarbon compounds present in crude oil and the hazardous hydrocarbon waste generated by oil refineries, known as Oil Sludge and converts them into harmless CO2 and water.
- The Oilzapper is neatly packed into sterile polythene bags and sealed aseptically for safe transport. The shelf life of the product is three months at ambient temperature.
- Sorbents absorb oil and are usually in the form of powder, granules or beads.
- They are either absorbent (they take some liquid into themselves) or adsorbent (forms a layer on the surface of the oil) materials and can be synthetic or natural, packaged or loose.
- Degreasers are used for cleaning grease from machinery of ships and marine structures
Swiss challenge method is a process of giving contracts. Any person with credentials can submit a development proposal to the government. That proposal will be made online and a second person can give suggestions to improve and beat that proposal.
- It is a method where third parties make offers (challenges) for a project within a designated period to avoid exaggerated project costs.
The government plans to adopt the ‘Swiss Challenge’ mode to invite bids for redeveloping the stations.
How Swiss model operates?
- First, the government will invite developers to submit their master plans.
- After evaluating the proposals, the selected design will be uploaded over the Ministry of Railways website.
- Financial bids will be invited and the developer quoting the highest upfront premium to be paid to the government will win the bid.
- However, the project developer, who had originally submitted the plan, will be given an opportunity to match the bid amount.
The government will also ensure that the developer has prior experience in the field of passenger transportation such as railway stations, airports or ports or construction experience in the core sector.