Q35. Which of the following functions in plants is/are done through transpiration?

1. supplies water for photosynthesis.
2. transports minerals from the soil to all parts of the plant.
3. maintains the shape and structure of the plants by keeping cells turgid.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A. 1 only
B. 1 and 2 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Exp: Transpiration has more than one purpose; it

• creates transpiration pull for absorption and transport of plants
• supplies water for photosynthesis
• transports minerals from the soil to all parts of the plant
• cools leaf surfaces, sometimes 10 to 15 degrees, by evaporative cooling
• maintains the shape and structure of the plants by keeping cells turgid

An actively photosynthesizing plant has an insatiable need for water. Photosynthesis is limited by available water which can be swiftly depleted by transpiration. The humidity of rainforests is largely due to this vast cycling of water from root to leaf to atmosphere and back to the soil.

Q35. Which of the following functions in plants is/are done through transpiration?

1. supplies water for photosynthesis.
2. transports minerals from the soil to all parts of the plant.
3. maintains the shape and structure of the plants by keeping cells turgid.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A. 1 only
B. 1 and 2 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Exp: Transpiration has more than one purpose; it

• creates transpiration pull for absorption and transport of plants
• supplies water for photosynthesis
• transports minerals from the soil to all parts of the plant
• cools leaf surfaces, sometimes 10 to 15 degrees, by evaporative cooling
• maintains the shape and structure of the plants by keeping cells turgid

An actively photosynthesizing plant has an insatiable need for water. Photosynthesis is limited by available water which can be swiftly depleted by transpiration. The humidity of rainforests is largely due to this vast cycling of water from root to leaf to atmosphere and back to the soil.

Q33. Which of the following statement(s) is/are true about Tawarikh?

1. These are the “histories”, written in Persian language.
2. The authors of Tawarikh were learned men who were secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers.
3. These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social order based on birth right and gender distinctions.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: Although inscriptions, coins and architecture provide a lot of information about Delhi sultanate, especially valuable are “histories”, tarikh (singular)/ tawarikh (plural), written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans. Statement 2 is correct: The authors of tawarikh were learned men: secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers, who both recounted events and advised rulers on governance, emphasizing the importance of just rule. Statement 3 is correct: The authors of tawarikh lived in cities (mainly Delhi) and hardly ever in villages. They often wrote their histories for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards. These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social order based on birth right and gender distinctions.

Q33. Which of the following statement(s) is/are true about Tawarikh?

1. These are the “histories”, written in Persian language.
2. The authors of Tawarikh were learned men who were secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers.
3. These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social order based on birth right and gender distinctions.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: Although inscriptions, coins and architecture provide a lot of information about Delhi sultanate, especially valuable are “histories”, tarikh (singular)/ tawarikh (plural), written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans. Statement 2 is correct: The authors of tawarikh were learned men: secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers, who both recounted events and advised rulers on governance, emphasizing the importance of just rule. Statement 3 is correct: The authors of tawarikh lived in cities (mainly Delhi) and hardly ever in villages. They often wrote their histories for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards. These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social order based on birth right and gender distinctions.

Q32. Consider the following statements regarding the Speaker of the Lok Sabha:

1. He prorogues the House in the absence of quorum.
2. He presides over a joint sitting of the Houses, addressed by the President.
3. He decides whether a bill is a Money bill or not and his decision in this regard is final.
4. He never votes in the House, to maintain his impartiality.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A. 1, 2 and 3 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 1, 3 and 4 only
D. 3 only

Answer: D

Exp: The options 1, 2, and 4 are incorrect.
As the Presiding Officer of the House, the Speaker has power to adjourn (not prorogue, as it is the President who prorogues the Houses) the sitting until there is quorum (The minimum number of members of the House of Parliament required to be present for a parliamentary proceeding to start is called Quorum, which is not less than 1/10 of the total strength of the House).
The Speaker presides over the joint sitting, which is summoned by the President to settle the deadlock between the Houses of Parliament. However, when the President addresses the House in a joint sitting, he himself presides it over, not the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Even though the Speaker of the Lok Sabha does not vote in the first instance, he can still exercise his vote in order to resolve a deadlock, thus the Speaker has a casting vote. This makes the position of the Speaker impartial.

Q32. Consider the following statements regarding the Speaker of the Lok Sabha:

1. He prorogues the House in the absence of quorum.
2. He presides over a joint sitting of the Houses, addressed by the President.
3. He decides whether a bill is a Money bill or not and his decision in this regard is final.
4. He never votes in the House, to maintain his impartiality.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A. 1, 2 and 3 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 1, 3 and 4 only
D. 3 only

Answer: D

Exp: The options 1, 2, and 4 are incorrect.
As the Presiding Officer of the House, the Speaker has power to adjourn (not prorogue, as it is the President who prorogues the Houses) the sitting until there is quorum (The minimum number of members of the House of Parliament required to be present for a parliamentary proceeding to start is called Quorum, which is not less than 1/10 of the total strength of the House).
The Speaker presides over the joint sitting, which is summoned by the President to settle the deadlock between the Houses of Parliament. However, when the President addresses the House in a joint sitting, he himself presides it over, not the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Even though the Speaker of the Lok Sabha does not vote in the first instance, he can still exercise his vote in order to resolve a deadlock, thus the Speaker has a casting vote. This makes the position of the Speaker impartial.

Prelims- Q30. Consider the following statements:

Q30. Consider the following statements:

1. The image formed by a plane mirror is always virtual and erect.

2. An image formed by a convex mirror is always virtual, erect and diminished.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

A. 1 only

B. 2 only

C. Both 1 and 2

D. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: C

Exp: The image formed by a plane mirror is always virtual (meaning that the light rays do not actually come from the image), upright, and of the same shape and size as the object it is reflecting. A virtual image is a copy of an object formed at the location from which the light rays appear to come. The convex mirrors only produce virtual images. The image of an object is found to be upright and reduced in size. Only a concave mirror is capable of producing a real image and this only occurs if the object is located a distance greater than a focal length from the mirror’s surface.

Q32. Consider the following statements regarding the Speaker of the Lok Sabha:

Q32. Consider the following statements regarding the Speaker of the Lok Sabha:

1. He prorogues the House in the absence of quorum.

2. He presides over a joint sitting of the Houses, addressed by the President.

3. He decides whether a bill is a Money bill or not and his decision in this regard is final.

4. He never votes in the House, to maintain his impartiality.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

A. 1, 2 and 3 only

B. 1 and 3 only

C. 1, 3 and 4 only

D. 3 only

Answer: D

Exp: The options 1, 2, and 4 are incorrect.

As the Presiding Officer of the House, the Speaker has power to adjourn (not prorogue, as it is the President who prorogues the Houses) the sitting until there is quorum (The minimum number of members of the House of Parliament required to be present for a parliamentary proceeding to start is called Quorum, which is not less than 1/10 of the total strength of the House).

The Speaker presides over the joint sitting, which is summoned by the President to settle the deadlock between the Houses of Parliament. However, when the President addresses the House in a joint sitting, he himself presides it over, not the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

Even though the Speaker of the Lok Sabha does not vote in the first instance, he can still exercise his vote in order to resolve a deadlock, thus the Speaker has a casting vote. This makes the position of the Speaker impartial.

Quiz-Q31. With reference to the features of a perfectly competitive market, consider the following statements:

Q31. With reference to the features of a perfectly competitive market, consider the following statements:

1. All firms in the market produce certain heterogeneous goods/services.

2. In such a market buyers must accept the prevailing prices but the sellers have the freedom to influence the prices.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

A. 1 only

B. 2 only

C. Both 1 and 2

D. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: D

Exp: A perfectly competitive market structure is approximated by a market satisfying the following conditions:

1. There exist a very large number of firms and consumers of the commodity, such that the output sold by each firm is negligibly small compared to the total output of all the firms combined, and similarly, the amount purchased by each consumer is extremely small in comparison to the quantity purchased by all consumers together.

2. All firms in the market produce a certain homogeneous good.

3. Each buyer and seller in the market is a price-taker. A price-taker is an individual or a company that must accept prevailing prices in a market, lacking the market share to influence market price on its own.

4. Firms are free to start producing the commodity or to stop production.

5. Consumers and firms have perfect knowledge of the output, inputs and their prices.

Quiz- Q26. Which of the following statements regarding Mughal Architecture is/are correct?

Q26. Which of the following statements regarding Mughal Architecture is/are correct? 1. The Chahar Bagh system in the Mughal Architecture was first introduced by Babur in India.

2. The Pishtaq or Central Towering Dome became one of the most important aspects of Mughal Architecture.

3. Humayun’s Tomb was built in the tradition known as ‘HashtBihisht’.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A. 1 only

B. 2 and 3 only

C. 1 and 3 only

D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: In his autobiography, Babur described his interest in planning and laying out formal gardens, placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels. These gardens were called Chahar Bagh, four gardens, because of their symmetrical division into quarters. Beginning with Akbar, some of the most beautiful chaharbaghs were constructed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan in Kashmir, Agra and Delhi.

Statement 2 correct: The Central Towering Dome and the Tall Gateway (pishtaq) became important aspects of Mughal architecture, first visible in Humayun’s Tomb.

Statement 3 correct: Humayun’s Tomb was placed at the centre of a huge formal chaharbagh and built in tradition known as “eight paradises” or hasht-bihisht – a central hall surrounded by eight rooms. The building was constructed with red sandstone, edged with white marble.

Q21. Which of the following embellishments have been used for the interior and exterior surfaces of Taj Mahal?

Q21. Which of the following embellishments have been used for the interior and exterior surfaces of Taj Mahal?

1. Stone carvings in high and low relief on the walls.
2. Delicate carving of marble into jalis and graceful volute
3. Creation of arabesques with pietra dura
4. Art of calligraphy with the inlay of jasper to write Quranic verses.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 1, 2 and 4 only
D. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: D

Exp: All the statements are true as four types of embellishments have been used with great effect for the interior and exterior surfaces of Taj Mahal.

1. 2. 3. 4. Stone carvings in high and low relief on the walls, The delicate carving of marble into jalis and graceful volutes (spiral ornament on the pillar), The creation of arabesques with pietra dura (yellow marble, jade and jasper) on walls and tombstones and geometric designs with tessellation. The art of calligraphy is used with the inlay of jasper in white marble to write Quranic verses. Calligraphy provided a decorative element on the walls and a continuous connection with the Almighty.

Q22. Which of the following are the features of Parliamentary Form of Government?

Q22. Which of the following are the features of Parliamentary Form of Government?

1. Presence of nominal and real executives
2. Membership of Ministers in the Legislature 3. Leadership of the Prime Minister or the Chief Minister
4. Fixed tenure of the Legislature

Select the correct answer using the code given below:
A. 1, 2 and 3 only
B. 1, 2 and 4 only
C. 2, 3 and 4 only
D. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: A

Exp:
The features of Parliamentary system, also known as ‘Westminster’ model of government are:
1. Presence of nominal and real executives like the Prime Minister and the President.
2. Majority Party Rule
3. Collective Responsibility of the Executive to the Legislature.
4. Political homogeneity as usually members of the Council of Ministers belong to the same political party, hence they share the same political ideology.
5. Double membership, one as the Minister other as the Member of Legislature.
6. Leadership of Prime Minister or the Chief Minister.
7. Dissolution of the lower house (Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly) and not a fixed tenure for the Legislature.
8. The Ministers operate on the principle of secrecy of procedure.

Quiz-Q23. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

Q23. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

Enzymes Produced In
A. Trypsin – Pancreas
B. Pesin – Stomach
C. Salivary Amylase – Saliva
D. Lipase – Liver

Answer: D

Exp: The stomach is a large organ which expands when food enters it. The muscular walls of the stomach help in mixing the food thoroughly with more digestive juices. These digestion functions are taken care of by the gastric glands present in the wall of the stomach. These release hydrochloric acid, a protein digesting enzyme called pepsin, and mucus. The hydrochloric acid creates an acidic medium which facilitates the action of the enzyme pepsin. The saliva contains an enzyme called salivary amylase that breaks down starch which is a complex molecule to give sugar. The food is mixed thoroughly with saliva and moved around the mouth while chewing by the muscular tongue.
The pancreas secrete pancreatic juice which contains enzymes like trypsin for digesting proteins and lipase for breaking down emulsified fats. The walls of the small intestine contain glands which secrete intestinal juice. The enzymes present in it finally convert the proteins to amino acids, complex carbohydrates into glucose and fats into fatty acids and glycerol.