February 2018 – Vision IAS current Affairs
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Tropical Evergreen Forests Conditions for growth:
Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen Forests are found mainly in the areas where the annual rainfall is more than 250 cm, with a short dry season. The average annual temperature should be above 22 °C.
Characteristics: Lofty, very dense, multi-layered forest with mesophytic evergreen, 45m or more in height, with large number of species, numerous epiphytes, and few climbers; Due to dense growth of trees, the sunlight cannot reach the ground. Thus, the undergrowth mainly consists of canes, bamboos, ferns, climbers, etc.
Location: The true evergreen forests are mostly found along the western slopes of Western Ghats, in the hills of north-eastern states and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Trees: Important trees of these forests are rosewood, ebony, mahogany, rubber, cinchona, bamboo, coconut, palms, canes, lianas, etc.
Utility: Not commercially exploitable. However, the timber from the tropical evergreen and semi- evergreen a forest is hard, durable, fine-grained and of high economic value.
Recently Odisha’s Sualgiri and Swalgiri communities have been notified as Scheduled Castes.
Criteria for inclusion in SC list:
Scheduled Castes (SCs):- Extreme social, educational and economic backwardness arising out of traditional practice of untouchability.
The Constitution of India empowers the Parliament of India to modify the list of notified scheduled castes, which upon receiving the assent of the President of India can be notified as Scheduled Castes.
Under the provision of Article 341, list of SCs in relation to a states/UT is to be issued by a notified Order of the President after consulting concerned State Government.
However, the clause (2) of Article 341 envisages that, any subsequent inclusion in or exclusion from the list of Scheduled Castes can be effected only through an Act of Parliament.
Further, Government has laid down Modalities in June, 1999, as amended in June, 2002 for processing of modifications in the lists of SCs and STs.
The Modalities envisage that only such proposals of the concerned State Governments / Union Territory Administrations, which have been agreed to by the Registrar General of India (RGI) and National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC), in the case of SCs, are further processed in accordance with provisions of clause (2) of Articles 341 and 342 respectively.
Consider the following statements about Kishenganga River
1. It is a tributary of river Satluj
2. It is called Neelum in Pakistan
Select the correct statements
a Only 1
b Only 2
c Both 1 and 2
d Neither 1 nor 2
The Jhelum has its source in a spring at Verinag in the south-eastern part of the Kashmir Valley. It flows northwards into Wular Lake (north-western part of Kashmir Valley). From Wular Lake, it changes its course southwards. At Baramulla the river enters a gorge in the hills. The river forms steep-sided narrow gorge through Pir Panjal Range below Baramula. At Muzaffarabad, the river takes a sharp hairpin bend southward. Thereafter, it forms the India-Pakistan boundary for 170 km and emerges at the Potwar Plateau near Mirpur. After flowing through the spurs of the Salt Range it debouches (emerge from a confined space into a wide, open area) on the plains near the city of Jhelum. It joins the Chenab at Trimmu.
The Kishenganga (Neelum) River, the largest tributary of the Jhelum, joins it, at Domel Muzaffarabad
Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant
It is a dam which is part of a run-of-the-river hydroelectric scheme that is designed to divert water from the Kishanganga River to a power plant in the Jhelum River basin
Kishenganga is a river in the Kashmir region of India and Pakistan; it starts in the Indian city of Gurais and then merges with the Jhelum River near the Pakistani city of Muzaffarabad. When Kishanganga enters Pakistan, it is called “Neelam river.”
Ratle Hydroelectric Plant
The Ratle Hydroelectric Plant is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power station currently under construction on the Chenab River, downstream of the village of Ratle in Doda district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Chenab River is a major river of India and Pakistan. It forms in the upper Himalayas in the Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh, India, and flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, Pakistan. The waters of the Chenab are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty.
Pakal Dul Dam
The Pakal Dul Dam is a proposed concrete-face rock-fill dam on the Marusadar River, a tributary of the Chenab River, in Kishtwar district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Pakistan, who relies on the Chenab downstream, views the dam as a violation of the Indus Water Treaty, whereas India states it is as per Treaty Provisions.
Lower Kalnai Hydroelectric Project
Hydroelectric power project on Lower Kalnai Nalla, tributary to river Chenab in Doda district of Jammu & Kashmir.
Miyar Hydroelectric Project
Miyar Hydroelectric Project is located in District Lahaul and Spiti, Himachal Pradesh on the Miyar Nallah which is a major tributary of Chenab River.
It is a run-of-the-river power project on the Chenab River in the southern Doda district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Once upon a time, there was a clever poor young man who lived in a city. His only resource was a dead rat. He started off by selling it for a coin to a hotel, for their cat.
Then one day, there was a storm. The king’s garden was littered with branches and leaves, and the gardener was at a loss as to how to clear the mess. The young man offered to clean the garden if he could keep the wood and leaves. The gardener agreed at once.
The young man rounded up all the children who were playing, with an offer of sweets for every stick and leaf that they could collect. In no time, every scrap had been neatly piled near the entrance. Just then, the king’s potter was on the look out for fuel with which to bake his pots. So he took the whole lot and paid the young man for it.
Our young man now thought of another plan. He carried a jar full of water to the city gate, and offered water to 500 grass cutters. They were pleased and said: “You have done us a good turn.” “Tell us, what can we do for you?”
He replied, “I’ll let you know when I need your help.”
He then made friends with a trader. One day, the trader told him: “Tomorrow, a horse dealer is coming to town with 500 horses.” Hearing this, our young man went back to the grass cutters. He said: “Please give me a bundle of grass each, and don’t sell your grass till mine is sold.” They agreed, and gave him 500 bundles of grass.
When the horse dealer could not buy grass anywhere else, he purchased the young man’s grass for a thousand coins. …”
Sabla scheme is related to which of the following?
(a) Training women in self defence tactics.
(b) Training women panchayat leaders.
(c) Nutrition and skill development of adolescents girls.
(d) Provision of microfinance to women self help groups.
The Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) Sabla is a centrally sponsored program of Government of India initiated on April 1, 2011 under Ministry of Women and Child Development. Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) -―SABLA‖ replaced Kishori Shakti Yojana and Nutrition Programme for Adolescent Girls. Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls – SABLA is implemented using the platform of ICDS Scheme through Anganwadi Centers (AWCs).
o The objectives of the Scheme are:
Enable the adolescent girls (AGs) for self-development and empowerment
Improve their nutrition and health status.
Promote awareness about health, hygiene, nutrition, Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health (ARSH) and family and child care.
Upgrade their home-based skills, life skills and tie up with National Skill Development Program (NSDP) for vocational skills.
Mainstream out of school AGs into formal/non formal education
Provide information/guidance about existing public services such as PHC,CHC, Post Office, Bank, Police Station, etc
Government launched Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (A-TUFS) in 2016 by replacing Revised Restructured
Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (ATUFS) is related
(a) modernizing and technology upgradation of leather units in India. (b) providing climate smart technologies to small farmers in order to improve productivity of agriculture.
(c) modernizing and upgradation of the textiles industry for boosting employment and export potential.
(d) upgrading 59. For passenger transport infrastructure for the disabled people.
Technology Fund Scheme (RRTUFS). Its objective is to upgrade technology in the textiles industry with one-time capital subsidy for eligible machinery. The amended scheme would give a boost to Make in India in the textiles sector; it is expected to attract investment to the tune of one lakh crore rupees and create over 30 lakh jobs.
The new scheme specifically targets:
Employment generation and export by encouraging apparel and garment industry, which will provide employment to women in particular and increase India‘s share in global exports.
Promotion of Technical Textiles, a sunrise sector, for export and employment.
Promoting conversion of existing looms to better technology looms for improvement in quality and productivity.
Encouraging better quality in processing industry and checking need for import of fabrics by the garment sector.
What is the aim of the programme ‘PMGDISHA’?
(a) A programme for empowerment of rural destitute women by providing them source of livelihood.
(b) To make 6 Crore rural households digitally literate by March 2019.
(c) It aims to provide Digital education to the rural children in the age group of 7 14 years through select government schools and Anagnwadi.
(d) It aims to provide for financial assistance to the SC/ST non agricultural entrepreneurs from the 2500 select Gram Panchayats.
Ans : B
Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA):
One of the largest digital literacy programmes in the world.
The PMGDISHA being initiated under Digital India Programme would cover 6 crore households in rural areas to make them digitally literate by March 2019.
To ensure equitable geographical reach, each of the 250,000 Gram Panchayats would be expected to register an average of 200-300 candidates.
The implementation of the Scheme would be carried out under the overall supervision of Ministry of Electronics and IT in active collaboration with States/UTs through their designated State Implementing Agencies, District e-Governance Society (DeGS), etc.
This would empower the citizens by providing them access to information, knowledge and skills for operating computers / digital access devices.
Consider the following statements with respect to Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY):
1. It intends to recognize the knowledge acquired and skills equipped by the participants through certification.
2. Persons from both organized and unorganized sectors can join the scheme.
3. It is being implemented by National Skill Development Corporation.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) is the flagship scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE). It is a flagship programme that intends to recognize the knowledge acquired and skills equipped by the participants by certification. Apart from this objective of this Skill Certification Scheme is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood. Individuals with prior learning experience or skills will also be assessed and certified under Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). Under this Scheme, Training and Assessment fees are completely paid by the Government. The scheme is being implemented by National Skill Development Corporation. Hence, statements 1 and 3 are correct.
This Scheme is applicable to any candidate of Indian nationality who is an unemployed youth or, school/college dropouts, possesses an Aadhaar card and a bank account. It also included those who are in the organized and unorganized sectors. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
The Government has launched the National AYUSH Mission with the objectives of:
providing cost effective AYUSH Services, with a universal access through upgrading AYUSH
Hospitals and Dispensaries,
co-location of AYUSH facilities at Primary Health Centres (PHCs), Community Health Centres
(CHCs) and District Hospitals (DHs),
strengthening institutional capacity at the state level through upgrading AYUSH educational
institutions, State Govt. ASU&H Pharmacies, Drug Testing Laboratories and ASU & H enforcement
supporting cultivation of medicinal plants by adopting Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) so as to provide sustained supply of quality raw-materials and support certification mechanism for quality standards,
Good Agricultural/Collection/Storage Practices and supporting setting up of clusters through convergence of cultivation, warehousing, value addition and marketing and development of infrastructure for entrepreneurs.