What is the rationale behind the special arrangement for administration of tribal areas under Sixth Schedule of the Constitution? In this respect also enumerate the key features of administration of tribal areas.

What is the rationale behind the special arrangement for administration of tribal areas under Sixth Schedule of the Constitution? In this respect also enumerate the key features of administration of tribal areas.

Approach

  • Introduce the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution
  • Explain the rationale behind special arrangement
  • Enumerate the key features of administration of tribal areas as per Schedule VI
  • Conclude Appropriately
Model Answer :

The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution contains special provisions for the administration of the tribal areas in four states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. These areas are given special treatment and autonomy for self government for the following reasons:

  • The tribal people in other parts of India have comparatively adopted the culture of the people in whose midst they live. But the tribal areas under schedule six still have roots in their own culture, customs and civilisation.
  • They were not much assimilated with ways and lives of the other people, and thus, the areas under schedule six were deemed to be requiring special treatment.

The key features of administration of tribal areas under schedule six are:

  • The tribal areas in the mentioned states are constituted as autonomous districts, but they are within the executive jurisdiction of the state government.
  • The autonomous district has a district council consisting of 26 elected and 4 nominated members. The elected members hold office for 5 years and nominated members hold office during the pleasure of the governor. Examples: Bodoland Territorial Council in Assam, Garo Hills Autonomous District Council in Meghalaya etc.
  • The Governor and President, as the case may be, decide whether parliament and state laws apply to these regions or they apply with specified modification and exception.
  • Each autonomous region also has a regional council.
  • The district and regional council can legislate on certain areas like land, forests, marriage & customs, etc. Such laws need the assent of the Governor.
  • The autonomous district can be further divided into autonomous regions by the governor.
  • The organisation or reorganisation like changing areas, names, etc. of these autonomous districts can be done by the Governor of respective state.
  • Village council or court of trial for suits and cases between tribes can be constituted by regional and district council having territorial jurisdiction.
  • The assessment and collection of land revenue along with imposition of specified taxes can be done by the district and regional council.

The provisions under the schedule six ensure that the ways of life of the tribal areas are preserved and protected by making the tribals participants in their administration.

Subjects : Polity

From defence and counter-terrorism to water harvesting and agriculture, the great number of avenues for India-Israel cooperation make it possible for the ties to overcome the faultlines and reach great heights. Comment.

From defence and counter-terrorism to water harvesting and agriculture, the great number of avenues for India-Israel cooperation make it possible for the ties to overcome the faultlines and reach great heights. Comment.
Approach:
  • Introduce briefly with India-Israel ties
  • Discuss the major avenues of cooperation between these two countries
  • Highlight some main faultlines in the relationship
  • Conclude with a positive view towards future relations
Model Answer :
The convergence of mutual bilateral interests between India and Israel is more conspicuous than ever before and this can be seen in growing cooperation on multiple fronts.
Defence deals:
  • Israel is set to topple the US as the chief exporter of arms and ammunitions to India with Barak missiles, surveillance drones and other big league defence deals.
  • In line with “Make in India” campaign, Israel has agreed to build a maintenance plant in India for the jointly-developed Barak 8 system.
National security and counter-terrorism:
  • India and Israel are boosting up the counter-terrorism cooperation and sharing real-time intel on issues crucial to national security. These ties are being taken forward based on common threats from global terrorism.
Water and agriculture:
  • Given Israel’s novel and efficient water technologies, there is ongoing cooperation between the two countries.
  • Several Desalination Plants (Nemelli, Chennai, and Jamnagar) were built by Israeli companies in India. Government of Rajasthan and Mekorot (Israel’s national water company) signed a MOU for joint development of waste water reuse capabilities and infrastructure facilities for high tech agriculture in Rajasthan.
  • India and Israel signed a comprehensive agreement for cooperation in agriculture in 2006.
  • Israeli drip irrigation technologies and products are now widely used in India. Israeli companies and experts are providing expertise to manage and improve dairy farming in India.
However, there are some potential fault-lines in the India-Israel relationship, including:
  • Israel’s keenness to forge stronger ties with India’s regional rival, China.
  • India’s relationships with the Middle Eastern countries including Iran, Israel’s arch enemy.
  • India continues to have a soft-spot for Palestine which does not go well with Israel. India and Israel will continue to ‘agree to disagree’ as regards India’s voting pattern in the UN on Palestine-related issues for the foreseeable future.
Conclusion:
India is de-hyphenating Israel from Palestine and is prepared to deal with the two separately and independently. As a result, the relationship between these two countries is gaining momentum day by day. Future prospects seemed so bright that the Prime Minister of Israel has proclaimed that the “sky is not the limit,” while referring to the future of India-Israel relations.

Subjects : Current Affairs

Discuss the reasons for, and the impact of, the recent sovereign ratings upgrade of India by International credit agency Moody’s.

Discuss the reasons for, and the impact of, the recent sovereign ratings upgrade of India by International credit agency Moody’s.

Approach:

  • Introduce with the ratings upgrade
  • Highlight the measures that influenced the upgrade
  • Explain how sovereign rating upgrade helps India
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

The global credit rating agency Moody’s Investors Services recently upgraded India’s sovereign ratings to Baa2 (from its lowest investment grade Baa3). It is the first ratings upgrade by Moody’s for India since 2004. It cited the Government of India’s wide-ranging program of economic and institutional reforms among the reasons for the move.

Measures that influenced the upgrade:

  1. GST:
  • The major tax reform, GST (Goods and Services Tax), has been implemented fairly smoothly, with good urgency shown and many political barriers crossed.
  1. IBC (Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code):
  • IBC is in place for tackling NPAs, and already major cases which have been referred to the tribunal and the resolution process is in progress.
  1. Recapitalization:
  • Banks have been recently recapitalised to ensure that they are adequately equipped to face the challenge of future growth in credit.
  1. Rationalisation of subsidies:
  • The rationalisation of delivery of public subsides was an achievement in efficiency with the UID (unique identity) scheme playing a major role.
  1. Others:
  • The power sector reform where the states took over Discom debt (under UDAY scheme), monetary policy reform though setting up of MPC (Monetary Policy Committee) etc. also helped.

What does a higher rating mean for India?

  1. Vindication of policies:
  • It is a vindication of all the policies implemented and measures undertaken by India to put the system in place and address all concerns of rating agencies.
  1. Eases borrowing:
  • A better rating will help Indian companies access global markets on more favourable terms, as sovereign rating is considered when interest rates are determined globally for overseas borrowers.
  1. Greater investment in India:
  • There could be a positive impact for foreign investors especially when the decision to allocate funds for any market or country is driven by the rating.
  1. Good for reputation:
  • From the point of view of reputation, the upgrade is helpful (though India is still underrated), especially as it comes at the time when the global economy is still in a tenuous state.

While the upgrade was very much logical, we need to be guarded as the rating is still in the BBB moderate risk category (it has moved from Baa3 to Baa2). The pace of reforms has to be kept up, and despite the coming elections, the fiscal deficit number have to be monitored well to ensure that there are few slippages.

Subjects : Editorials