According to State of India’s Environment 2017, nearly 30 per cent of India is degraded or facing desertification. Highlight the major causes of Desertification in India. Also explain steps taken by Government to address the problem.

According to State of India’s Environment 2017, nearly 30 per cent of India is degraded or facing desertification. Highlight the major causes of Desertification in India. Also explain steps taken by Government to address the problem.

Approach

  • Brief introduction about Desertification in India
  • Major causes for the Desertification in India
  • Steps taken by Government to address the desertification.
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

Desertification is a type of land degradation, where relatively dry land region becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife. According to State of India’s Environment 2017, nearly 30 per cent of India is degraded or facing desertification, with 26 of 29 Indian states reporting an increase in the area undergoing desertification in the past 10 years.

Major causes (according to the ‘Desertification and Land degradation atlas of India by ISRO):

  1. Water Erosion– responsible for around 10.98% of desertification in India. Loss of soil due to rainfall or surface runoff.
  2. Vegetation degradation- responsible for about 8.91% of desertification. Includes deforestation, shifting cultivation, degradation in grazing, grassland.
  3. Wind erosion- responsible for 5.55% of desertification; soil erosion by wind is more common in areas where the natural vegetation has been destroyed. Such conditions occur mainly in arid and dry areas along the sandy shores of oceans, lakes and rivers.
  4. Salinity- responsible for around 1.12% of desertification. Saline accumulation retards plant growth. Land devoid of plant cover easily becomes desertified.
  5. Human settlements- responsible for 0.69% of desertification, it includes urbanisation, mining etc.
  6. Others- responsible for around 2%. Includes water logging, frost shattering, mass movement etc

Steps taken by Government to combat Desertification:

  • India has committed itself to the U.N. Convention on Combating Desertification (UNCCD)that it would fully stop land degradation by 2030.
  • The National Action Programme for Combating Desertification was prepared in 2001 to take action in addressing the desertification.
  • Also a Regional Action Programme has been formulated to strengthen the existing capacity of the UNCCD member country parties and to network with each other for effective measures to combat desertification.
    • Six Thematic Programme Network (TPN) have been identified for this purpose. India also participated actively in TPN.
  • There are number of programmes that address issues related to land degradation and desertification, including
    • Integrated Watershed Management Programme
    • National Afforestation Programme
    • National Mission for Green India
    • National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas

India can take a look at global case studies in order to fight the problem of desertification, for example China’s ‘the green wall’. India needs to take leadership in the global effort in eradicating the problem of desertification. This alone will ensure sustainable land management and provide food, water and livelihood security to people besides safeguarding the environment.

Subjects : Ecology and Environment

The Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime aims to re-shape India’s economic landscape benefiting various stakeholders, while also making it an easier place to do business. Comment.

The Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime aims to re-shape India’s economic landscape benefiting various stakeholders, while also making it an easier place to do business. Comment.
Approach:
  • Introduce with transformational aims of GST
  • Discuss how various stakeholders benefit from the GST regime and the impact on doing business
  • Mention some challenges with GST
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :
The Goods & Services Tax (GST) is aimed at a simplified, assesse-friendly tax administration system in the country with a paradigm shift towards ‘One Nation, One Tax, One Market’. By doing away with the cascading of myriad indirect taxes across the country, it is expected to make India an easier place to do business by easing tax compliance and reducing corruption as well as costs.
Benefits of GST:
  • Trade:
    • It will benefit because of uniform single indirect tax throughout the country, removal of tax related barriers at inter-state borders, reduced logistic costs, and minimal interface with tax authorities.
    • Exports will become more competitive and Make in India programme will get a major fillip due to increased ease of doing business.
  • Manufacturing:
    • As India will become one big common market, manufacturers will be able to take rational decisions with regard to sourcing of raw materials, location of manufacturing and warehousing facilities.
  • To consumers:
    • Removal of cascading in taxes and efficiency gains will bring down the overall price paid by the consumers.
How GST leads to ease of doing business:
  • Simpler tax regime with fewer exemptions
  • Reduction in compliance costs – no multiple record keeping for a variety of taxes so lesser manpower needed
  • Simplified and automated procedures for various processes such as registration, returns, refunds etc.
  • All interaction to be through the common GSTN portal – minimal public interface between the tax payers and administration
  • Harmonization of laws, procedures and rates of taxes
The Central and State Governments will also benefit through widened tax base and significant reduction in the tax collection costs. However, there are few challenges which need to be addressed in order to achieve the intended goals of GST.
The challenges include:
  • Multiplicity of tax rates, cesses, exemption of certain goods from GST which are against the basic principle of single tax regime.
  • High tax rates on many goods and services (they are being reduced now).
  • Businesses (and professionals) having to wait for refunds.
  • Potential short-term adverse impact on the informal sector and the SME sector.
Conclusion:
The launch of GST is a transformative reform and will change the way businesses are done in India. Radical change of this magnitude is bound to bring about some pain but the gains of little pain are going to be many and long lasting for the Indian economy.

Subjects : Yojna summary

More than 10 years since coming into force, the MGNREGA continues to be one of the most ambitious schemes of modern India. Discuss the impact of the scheme and highlight issues in its implementation.

More than 10 years since coming into force, the MGNREGA continues to be one of the most ambitious schemes of modern India. Discuss the impact of the scheme and highlight issues in its implementation.
Approach:
  • Introduce with MGNREGA
  • Enumerate the positive outcomes of the legislation
  • Highlight issues in its implementation
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

The enactment of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) provided a legal guarantee for 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to any rural household. Its demand-based legal framework promised to provide a new dimension to the rural empowerment efforts.

Positive outcomes of this Act:
  • Social Capital: An institutional platform is provided for enabling the mobilization of all the stakeholders into group action which fosters cooperation and community action.
  • Physical Capital: Creating durable assets of higher quality, resulting in an improved production base.
  • Economic Opportunities: Income enhancements, savings and investments become possible through various allied activities.
  • Social empowerment: Mainly women and people from lower castes got benefit leading to their financial autonomy.
  • Strengthening Democratic Processes: Convergence awareness and planning at the grass root level has potential for greater ownership of projects.
  • Check on migration: As rural people get source of employment through this scheme, it led to reduction in migration.
  • Insurance against calamities: In case of draught and other natural calamities, this scheme provides an alternate source of income for farmers.
However, after a few years, the scheme’s performance and its impact on rural economy started waning. The scheme was also criticized for not creating durable assets, while the beneficiaries complained of corruption and delay in payments. Its implementation was also uneven across states.
Issues with the implementation:
  • There is a lack of appreciation of a demand driven, rights-based approach, both among communities and officials leading to inadequate community participation and consultation.
  • Poorly attended gram sabhas resulted in an incomplete or inappropriate list of activities to be undertaken.
  • While multiple cards being possessed by a single household is observed in some cases, the exclusion of several households is also quite common.
  • Delays in raising and approving bills and consequent delays in wage payments have also been quite common.
  • Poor capacity of Gram Panchayats, and poorer capacity support from official agencies, are common features.
Conclusion:
To overcome issues in the implementation and create durable assets, the MNREGS scheme has recently been revamped towards use of ICT tools, space technology, focus on improving livelihood resource base of people etc. Measure like National Electronic Fund Management System (NeFMS), Aadhaar seeding for direct wage payment, Geo tagging of assets and strengthening of Social Audit System are some steps being taken towards bringing in more transparency and accountability in the programme implementation.

Discuss the major Industrial regions of India? Also, point out major industries located in each region. (250 words)

Discuss the major Industrial regions of India? Also, point out major industries located in each region. (250 words)

Approach:

  • Briefly mention the importance of industrial regions and their features
  • Discuss the major industrial regions of India and for each region mention major industries located there (It is useful to Indicate the location of each region on a map)
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

Development of an Industrial base is necessary for socio-economic development of any country. Industries  are crucial for employment creation, value addition to the products of primary sector and export competitiveness. The Industrial regions are identified using indicators and criteria like number of factories located, number of factory workers, industrial output, the value of production, etc.

The major industrial regions of India are:

  1. Mumbai-Pune Region:
    • Trade with European countries after Suez Canal opening boosted the development of industries in this region.
    • The humid climate, natural ports, hydropower availability and cotton production are the key factors of growth of this region.
    • The key industries are cotton textiles, engineering goods, leather goods, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and processed foods.
  2. Kolkata-Hugli Region:
    • Situated along the banks of Hugli River in West Bengal.
    • The proximity to areas growing jute and tea plantations, coal mines, cheap labour availability, etc. were the key factors of industrial growth.
    • Major industries are jute textiles, cotton textiles, silk textiles, iron and steel, footwear and chemical industry.
  3. Ahmedabad-Vadodara Region:
    • Availability of cheap land and labour, proximity to cotton growing areas, port facilities and nuclear, thermal and hydel power projects aided this region in the Industrial activities.
    • Key industries of this region are cotton textiles, diamond industry, silk textiles, petrochemical industry, pharmaceuticals industry and engineering goods industry.
  4. Bengaluru-Coimbatore-Madurai Region:
    • This region covers the area of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
    • More than 60% of workers are engaged in textiles and rest are engaged in producing engineering goods and food-processing industry.
    • Good climate, skilled labour and regular supply of power are the pull factors for industries.
  5. Chhotanagpur Region:
    • Covers Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal and Odisha.
    • It is also called “Ruhr of India” due to the heavy concentration of Iron and Steel industry.
    • The pull factors are abundance of fossil fuel, metallic and non-metallic minerals, cheap labour availability, and power availability from Damodar Valley Corporation.
    • Other key industries are fertilizer, locomotive, glass and cement.
  6. Agra-Delhi-Kalka-Saharanpur Region:
    • Proximate to the national capital of India
    • Raw materials form agriculture, power availability from multiple sources, proximity to market and peaceful industrial environment have facilitated industrial development.
    • Key industries are engineering goods, sugar, textiles, food processing, glass and agriculture machinery.

These regions are facing issues like outdated technology, power shortages, a spike in prices of land, etc. which needs to be addressed in order to sustain the industrial activities in these regions. Several small Industrial regions are also emerging which will further boost industrial base of India.

Subjects : Geography

With rising fiscal deficit and leakages in the welfare schemes, CSR is seen as a useful additional avenue to address the problems of society in a cost effective manner and thereby helping India to achieve an inclusive growth. Comment.

With rising fiscal deficit and leakages in the welfare schemes, CSR is seen as a useful additional avenue to address the problems of society in a cost effective manner and thereby helping India to achieve an inclusive growth. Comment.
Approach:
  • Briefly discuss about CSR as a mandatory provision in India.
  • Discuss with examples, how CSR activities provide alternative as well as additional services to the needy
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a way in which companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations. For example, firms in polluting industries organize CSR activities related to the environment, while firms in the iron and steel and power sector spend more on local community development, as their projects cause large-scale displacement. The government of India made it mandatory for companies to undertake CSR activities (worth 2 per cent of their profits) under the Companies Act, 2013.
India is at the threshold of demographic dividend, and there is an urgent need for the creation of human and physical capital to reap its rewards. Public delivery of goods and services is often riddled with corruption and bureaucratic inefficiency and the welfare schemes are crippled with leakages. In light of this, CSR initiatives are seen as a useful alternative to governmental provision of merit goods.
Usefulness of CSR:
CSR Activities for Marginalized Sections:
  • Providing literacy and vocational education and removing barriers to access and employability
  • Facilitating livelihoods in rural areas by creating job opportunities through SHGs and micro enterprises, thereby reducing the need for migration
  • Setting up old age homes, day care centers, and such other facilities for senior citizens.
  • Supplementing Government’s efforts to make cities slum free.
CSR – the Harbinger for Empowerment:
  • Govt. flagship programmes like Make in India, Start-Up India, Skill India, Digital India are being promoted through CSR projects.
  • Tata Motors collaborates with a number of industrial training institutes to conduct skill development programmes. Some of the companies collaborate with government schools and support the mid-day meal programmes.
  • Tata Consultancy services and Bharti Airtel, as a part of their CSR initiatives, are building toilets for girls in schools in support of government’s Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
Conclusion:
Innovative CSR projects that are economically viable, scalable and replicable in demographic context can have deep rooted societal impact that will mainstream the marginalized. We need to tap the enormous resource pool and the organizational capacity of the corporate sector to design viable and innovative CSR projects. It would be useful for community organizations to think more strategically about the prospective corporate partners which can help them achieve their goals.

Subjects : Yojna summary

The prevalence of NGOs is often considered as a sign of well-functioning civil society. Discuss the role and impact of NGOs in capacity building of a nation?

The prevalence of NGOs is often considered as a sign of well-functioning civil society. Discuss the role and impact of NGOs in capacity building of a nation?
Approach :
  • Briefly introduce with what are NGOs.
  • Explain the various roles played by NGOs.
  • Their impacts on the capacity building of the nation.
  • Conclude Appropriately.
Model Answer :
An Non Governmental Organisation (NGO) is a group, organisation, non-profit establishment of individuals, activists, voluntary and social persons who are working or associated for social welfare and social development. As NGOs are expected to contribute to democracy in developing countries and build democratic aid structures, their presence is considered as a sign of well-functioning civil society.
Roles played by NGOs in capacity building:
  1. At Individual level- NGOs help individuals in building their capacity by providing public services like education, food, education etc. Example- Akshay Patra foundation provides mid-day meals in the schools; CARE India works for empowering Indian women.
  2. At community level- They empower the community in number of ways like grievance redressal, by explaining the provisions of various laws and policies, by taking their issues and problems with the government etc. Example- NGOs help people conduct social audits of NREGA works.
  3. At institutional level- NGOs help the government in understanding the ground realities of various issues and also in monitoring the implementation of Government schemes at ground level. Thus help in capacity building of the institutions or agencies. Example- Public hearing panels often have no clue on the scope of their role in environmental clearance process, and NGOs aid them in understanding the issues.
Besides, larger NGOs also help strengthen other smaller NGOs by providing them skill training and organisational support. For example, NGOs like Oxfam support many local NGOs in India.
Impact of NGOs:
  • NGOs have played an important role in aiding improvements in the income and consumption levels of the poor.
  • Various environment conservation and wildlife conservation initiatives have become successful due to active participation of NGOs. Ex- Narmada Bachao Andolan.
  • From providing direct benefit (like distributing nutrition feed to malnourished children) to enabling and empowering people (like making a community realise the importance of sending their children to school), NGOs have helped the underprivileged and deprived people march ahead in life.
Recently a lot of questions were raised regarding their auditing, reporting, involvement in anti-development activities etc. So, for effective functioning of NGOs, various steps like drafting of a comprehensive model legislation, ethical education and training etc. as recommended by 2nd ARC need to be implemented.

Subjects : Develop Sector

Surplus human activities have severely affected the marine life on the Earth’s oceans. Comment.

Surplus human activities have severely affected the marine life on the Earth’s oceans. Comment.

Approach

  • Introduce with importance of oceans
  • List anthropogenic impact on marine life
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

Oceans provide life support only to marine life but also to humans as they produce more than half the world’s oxygen, create more than $128 billion in GDP annually. However, surplus human activity is spreading harmful substances such as oil, plastic, industrial and agricultural waste and chemical particles into the ocean causing marine pollution.

Anthropogenic activities impacting marine life:

  • Marine Pollution: Sewage, toxic chemicals from industries, large scale oil spills, ocean mining, disposal of plastic are all destroying the marine life.
  • Climate Change: Increased sea carbon dioxide levels and sea temperature due to human induced climate change can cause, ocean acidification etc harm the habitat of marine life, especially corals.
  • Physical disturbance of sea-bed habitat and marine biota : This occurs as a result of bottom trawling, dredging for shipping, offshore hydrocarbon industries, deep sea mining and land reclamation projects.
  • Increased demand for marine space: from fisheries, aquaculture, shipping routes, tourism etc.
  • Underwater noise: from shipping, offshore exploration, mining etc.

Oceans are the largest water bodies on the planet Earth. Marine pollution is the release of harmful substances such as oil, plastic, industrial and agricultural waste and chemical particles into the ocean. The marine debris creates health hazard for marine life.

Impact of human activities on marine life:

  • The wastes that are dumped into the oceans tend to have toxic substances, which soak in all the oceanic oxygen leading to death of marine life.
  • Rising ocean temperatures and de-oxygenation can kill Corals or impede their reproduction and growth, causing negative impact on the whole ecosystem.
  • Phytoplankton and marine bacteria carry out most of the first degree production on which food webs depend. The increase in sea temperature is affecting their productivity, which in turn will have serious implications for human food security and nutrient cycles.
  • Plastic debris that reaches the ocean remains floating for years as it does not decompose quickly; Birds, turtles, and fish ingest a variety of plastic items, especially micro-beads and their digestive systems become clogged,
  • Oil spill is extremely toxic to marine life, often suffocating marine animals too.
  • Bioaccumulation of hazardous substances damages immune and reproductive systems and also causes the death of marine life.

About 30-35% of critical marine habitats have been overused or destroyed. The Sustainable Development Goal 14 on “Life below water” aims to sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems from pollution. Given the state of ocean ecosystems, it is paramount for nations to collaborate scientifically and create networks for conservation.

Subjects : Ecology and Environment

PMAY (U) is beneficial both welfare-wise and economically, but its implementation has been slow so far for various reasons. Discuss, along with strategies for the effective implementation of the scheme.

PMAY (U) is beneficial both welfare-wise and economically, but its implementation has been slow so far for various reasons. Discuss, along with strategies for the effective implementation of the scheme.

Approach:

  • Introduce briefly mentioning the PMAY (U) scheme and its benefits
  • Highlight the slowness of the progress and discuss causes briefly
  • Suggest strategies for effective implementation
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) or PMAY (U) was launched in June 2015 with the target of constructing 2 crore affordable houses by 2022. As well as providing housing to large number of people, it could have potentially significant economic gains, especially in terms of jobs and investment, as well as giving fillip to core construction sectors such as steel and cement.

However, progress on the scheme has been slow. More than 2 years after the launch, about 22 lakh housing units have been approved under PMAY (U), and just 1.4 lakh houses have been completed.

The reasons for slow progress include:

  • Disparities in implementation by states: For example, while only 2% of the grounded houses were completed in Himachal Pradesh as on July 2017, the comparable figures for Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka are 5%, 25% and 25%, respectively.
  • Low credit flow: The major slowdown in credit flow to the housing sector has thwarted construction activities of many builders.

Measures to hasten the implementation of the scheme:

  1. Overhaul funding mechanisms:
  • The Union Budget 2017-18 has awarded infrastructure status to affordable housing and implemented the real estate Bill (RERA), which should ensure easier access to institutional credit to the builders along with greater transparency.
  • Long-term bonds could be issued by infrastructure and housing finance companies.
  1. Ensuring completion of stalled projects:
  • A suitable process must be put in place through which the government can take over stalled projects and ensure their completion.
  • Alternatively, the government can ensure access to time-bound and outcome-bound credit, raised through sovereign infra bonds, to developers to help them finish projects.
  1. Encourage foreign investment:
  • The government has to take a proactive approach to encouraging foreign participation and investment into the affordable housing sector, which will bring both capital and superior technology for fast and efficient completion.
  1. Find a way out of high land acquisition costs:
  • To minimise land acquisition costs, government could increase floor space index (FSI) and enable vertical construction.
  • The government must also consider better utilisation of its existing land banks and that of other public sector enterprises.

Success in implementation of PMAY (U) needs to be ensured through progress in the measures listed above. It is has huge economic benefits with a potential addition of about 2% to the GDP growth rate and create employment across the value chain.

Subjects : Editorials

There has been some criticism of the government’s plan to invest in high speed railway (HSR). Discuss the demerits and merits of HSR.

There has been some criticism of the government’s plan to invest in high speed railway (HSR). Discuss the demerits and merits of HSR.

Approach:

  • Introduce with the HSR project that was launched
  • Highlight the demerits
  • Enumerate the merits
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

In 2017, foundation stone was laid for the ambitious Rs 1 lakh crore Ahmedabad-Mumbai high-speed rail project. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Union Railway Ministry have inked a MoU for the 508-km corridor. However, it led to criticism from some quarters in light of the high expenditure.

Demerits of High Speed Railway:

  1. The huge financial expenditure can further strain the country’s limited resources, which can invested in sectors like health and education.
  2. India may not be ready as it is still in a learning phase in terms of safe operation of its present trains. We need to first ensure that we have build proper managerial capacity and accident free running of the trains before jumping to the next level.

Merits of High Speed Railway:

  1. More intensive urbanisation as well as rising incomes would lead to higher travel propensity.
  2. They have the highest safety standards as can be seen from the fact that Japan had no accidents in decades.
  3. With the average operating speeds of around 250 km/h, HSR helps bring settlements 500 km apart within two hours of each other.
  4. The financing for the project is mostly by Japan on highly favourable terms with low interest rates and great leeway in repayment.
  5. The technology transfer envisaged in this project will benefit Indian Railways, and boost the Make in India initiative.
  6. High-speed electric trains are energy-efficient and environment friendly, and only emits an eight and a fifth of carbon dioxide as against automobiles and airplanes per passenger km, respectively.
  7. HSR can been a catalyst for economic growth, a stimulus for the development of satellite towns, helping alleviate migration to metropolises, as seen in Japan.

A nation of India’s size, potential and aspirations has to acquire the best technologies in line with the high ambition and willpower of “New India.” Such technologies can also have a great downstream impact, as seen when India adapted to technological advances like computers and smart phones.

Subjects : Editorials

Even as more than half of India’s population is dependent on agriculture, Indian farm exports are declining every year due to various reasons. Comment. Suggest measures for India to take advantage of its wide climate and soil variations to better position itself for increased exports.

Even as more than half of India’s population is dependent on agriculture, Indian farm exports are declining every year due to various reasons. Comment. Suggest measures for India to take advantage of its wide climate and soil variations to better position itself for increased exports.

Approach

  • Introduce with agriculture in India and decline in agriculture exports
  • Highlight reasons for decline in exports
  • Discuss how India can boost agriculture to better position for exports
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

Around 60–70%% of Indian population directly or indirectly depends upon Agriculture sector and the sector currently contributes to 16–17% of the GDP. India is a net exporter in agriculture products and governments have been taking measures to promote more exports. However, India’s agricultural exports have declined to $33.87 billion in 2016-17 from $43.23 billion in 2013-14.

Export and import of agricultural products depend on various factors such as availability, international and domestic demand and supply situation and quality concerns. Some of the causes for decline in exports include:

  • Weak global prices which have the export of our major agriculture commodities uncompetitive.
  • Significant fall in exports of our marine products, buffalo meat, rice including basmati which have been top contributors in exports basket.
  • Domestic prices of three major agri commodities in India – wheat, soya meal and maize – have remained higher than international market in the last 18 months, which restricted the prospects of Indian commodity exports in the international market.
  • Exports of some commodities like spices has faced with several quality related issues, such as adulteration in jeera and chilli.

India has largest arable land acreage and a wide variety of agro-climatic conditions which can be leveraged to make India the growth engine and food provider to the world. Some of the measures that can be taken include:

  • Productivity – of our farmers, which is much below global average, must be raised by providing farmers with good variety of seeds, irrigation and helping them choose crops pertinent to local climate.
  • Value addition – Food processing industry (FPI) must be given boost, as currently only 6% of our food is processed.
  • Extension services – On soil health, use of fertilizers, veterinary services, crop varieties, dryland farming etc must be provided.
  • Technology – Sensors to monitor soil, weather and crop conditions, Hydrology survey, pest management, precision farming etc, Animal biometric collars, Kisan Suvidha App, SmartAgri, ‘AgriMarket’ etc
  • Land reforms – Problem of small land holding must be solved by cooperative farming or land consolidation facilitated by contract farming, feeding to FPI and improvement in supply chain.
  • Other measures could include massive awareness campaigns for best agricultural practices, greater capital investments and developing export infrastructure etc.

Agriculture exports are important for boosting farmers’ income and government of India has been implementing a number of measures and incentives for promoting the their exports, including financial assistance from APEDA and incentives under Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS).

Subjects : Editorials