Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as a global threat that can cause serious health and economic problems. Discuss the reasons leading AMR to this alarming level and give suitable measures to tackle it.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as a global threat that can cause serious health and economic problems. Discuss the reasons leading AMR to this alarming level and give suitable measures to tackle it.

Approach:

  • Introduce with AMR and concerns involved.
  • Point out the causes of growth in AMR.
  • Mention the suitable measures.
  • Conclude with mentioning the recent steps taken by India and WHO.(Very briefly)
Model Answer :
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the ability of a microorganism (like bacteria, viruses, and some parasites) to stop an antimicrobial (such as antibiotics, antivirals, and antimalarials) from working against it. As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, infections persist and may spread to others. The growth of antimicrobial resistance is threatening the health and well-being across the globe by posing the threat of prolonged illness, high mortality and high economic costs.
There are various reasons leading to such a high growth in Antimicrobial resistance:
  • Overprescription, self-medication, over the counter sale of antimicrobials resulting into over-use of antibiotics in treating diseases.
  • Patients often do not finish the entire course of medicine.
  • Spread of AMR microorganisms due to poor public sanitation and hygiene.
  • Poor infection control by hospitals is a major reason for the spread of AMR.
  • Antimicrobials are used indiscriminately in animal husbandry and crop farming, causing AMR resistant microorganisms to enter into the food chain.
  • There is lack of new antimicrobials being developed that can be effective in tackling AMR.
There is a dire need to arrest AMR as soon as possible.
Some measures that can be taken are:
  • Enhance public awareness with respect to proper use of Antimicrobials.
  • Over the counter sale of antimicrobials needs to be strictly regulated.
  • Strengthen the surveillance network for monitoring new AMR.
  • Precision methods need to be developed to facilitate optimal usage of antimicrobials in animal husbandry and crop farming.
  • Sanitation and hygiene need to be promoted to stop the spread of AMR microorganisms.
  • Enhance research and development to develop new and advanced antimicrobials.
Seeing the urgency to control antimicrobial resistance, the WHO came up with Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance. To tackle this menace, India also recently launched a National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, similarly many other countries have developed national programmes on AMR. ‘The Red Line Campaign’ of the government of India to create awareness with respect to Antimicrobial usage has been appreciated worldwide. This enabling environment can help in countering the growth of AMR.

Subjects : Science and Technology

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