There’s been a paradigm shift in disaster management from a relief-centric approach to an integrated approach covering all four phases of disaster management. Discuss.
- Introduce with the paradigm shift to an integrated approach to disaster management
- Discuss the four phases of the DM cycle
- Conclude accordingly
India is vulnerable to numerous types of natural and manmade disasters. The management of disasters has gone through a gradual evolution. Recently, there’s been a paradigm shift in disaster management – from the hitherto relief-centric approach to a more proactive, holistic and integrated approach covering all the four phases of disaster management.
The four phases of disaster management cycle:
1) Mitigation: Mitigation involves steps to reduce vulnerability to disaster impacts such as injuries and loss of life and property. This involves strengthening of public infrastructure; and other efforts to make the community more resilient to a catastrophic event.
2) Preparedness: Preparedness focuses on understanding how a disaster might impact the community and how education, outreach and training can build capacity to respond to and recover from a disaster.
3) Response: Response addresses immediate threats presented by the disaster, including saving lives, meeting humanitarian needs (food, shelter, clothing, public health and safety), cleanup, damage assessment, and the start of resource distribution. As the response period progresses, focus shifts from dealing with immediate emergency issues to conducting repairs, restoring utilities, establishing operations for public services (including permitting), and finishing the cleanup process.
4) Recovery: Recovery is the fourth phase of disaster which involves the restoration of all aspects of the disaster’s impact on a community and the return of the local economy to some sense of normalcy.
The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) takes into consideration all the phases, and provides a framework and direction to the government agencies for all phases of disaster management cycle. India has considerably enhanced its capabilities in disaster management. The effective implementation of NDMP is of crucial importance in making India disaster-resilient while India pursues the goals of sustainable development.
Subjects : Disaster Management