Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in India are not progressing satisfactorily due to various challenges. In this context, discuss the various challenges and opportunities of MSME sector.

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in India are not progressing satisfactorily due to various challenges. In this context, discuss the various challenges and opportunities of MSME sector.

Approach

  • Introduce with significance of MSMEs
  • Highlight the challenges faced by the sector
  • Highlight the opportunities
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) play a vital role for the growth of Indian economy by contributing 45% of industrial output, 40% of exports, employing 40 percent of India’s workforce and producing more than 8000 quality products for the Indian and international markets. Despite of the importance of the MSMEs in Indian economic growth, the sector is facing challenges.

Challenges:

  • Absence of adequate and timely banking finance
  • Limited capital and knowledge
  • Non-availability of suitable technology
  • Low production capacity
  • Ineffective marketing strategy and absence of proper market linkages
  • Constraints on modernisation & expansions
  • Non availability of skilled labour at affordable cost
  • Follow up with various government agencies to resolve problems due to lack of man power and knowledge etc.

It also presents various opportunities:

  • Less Capital Intensive: With its less capital intensive and high labour absorption nature, MSME sector can make significant contribution to employment generation and also to rural industrialization.
  • Employment Generating Sector: The sector has huge employment potential.
  • Effective Tool for the Removal of Regional Disparity: MSME sector can take care of local needs, improve economic condition of the area and most importantly, can bring a qualitative change in the economy of the country.
  • Export Contribution: Its contribution towards export is 40 percent.
  • Equitable Distribution of Income

SMEs are now exposed to greater opportunities than ever for expansion and diversification across the sectors. It is very important to empower the MSME sector to utilize the limited resources (human & economic) they have in an optimum manner. The SMEs need to be educated and informed of the latest developments taking place globally and be helped to acquire skills necessary to keep pace with the global developments.

Subjects : Yojna summary

Despite its inherent strength, the handicrafts sector in India suffers from various weaknesses due to which it is not able to realize its full potential. Discuss. (150 words)

Despite its inherent strength, the handicrafts sector in India suffers from various weaknesses due to which it is not able to realize its full potential. Discuss. (150 words)
Approach
  • Introduce with the handicrafts sector.
  • Discuss the strength of the sector.
  • Highlight the weaknesses the industry is suffering from.
  • Conclude appropriately.
Model Answer :
The Indian handicraft and handloom industry forms an integral part of rich cultural heritage of country. It is an unorganised, decentralised, labour intensive cottage industry which provides employment to craftspersons in rural and semi urban areas.
Strengths:
  • Indian Handicrafts Industry potentially has a large and diversified market in domestic & international platforms.
  • It provides large product varieties and range as it is full of diversified culture.
  • Labor rates are cheap and it results in competitive prices.
  • The industry needs low capital investment.
  • The barriers for new entries in this market are low.
  • This Industry is potentially a large source of employment.
  • It is the potential source of foreign revenue because of export potential.
Weaknesses of the industry include:
  • Lacking in infrastructure and communication facilities.
  • Lack of awareness among craftsmen about international requirements and market.
  • Lack of co-ordination between government bodies and private players.
  • Inadequate information of new technology and developments.
  • Inadequate information of current market trends.
  • Lack of skilled labor in industry.
  • Confinement of the industry to rural areas and small cities and inability to reach untapped market.
  • Lack of promotion of products.
Indian handicrafts are representative of Indian culture and heritage. There is dire need to exploit its strengths while addressing its weaknesses to withstand the onslaught of globalization. Government has taken various steps such as formation of Weaver’s Service Centres, Mega Handloom Clusters scheme, India Handloom Brand etc. to promote this sector.

Subjects : Yojna summary

The Naga insurgency has been a major threat to India’s security and integrity and can destabilize multiple states in north-eastern India. Elaborate. Also discuss various measures taken by the governments in handling the issue.

 

Approach:

  • Introduce the issue of Naga insurgency.
  • Explain its impact on security of India as well as that in northeastern states.
  • Provide measures undertaken by Government especially Naga peace accord.
  • Conclude appropriately.
Model Answer :

Ever since Indian Independence, the Naga Insurgency has taken many forms, including the demands for secessionism to wanton violence. The Naga Insurgency at present is driven by demand for Independent Nation – Greater Nagaland or Nagalim.

Impact on India’s security:

  • Violence: Thousands of lives have been lost due to violence in the region.
  • Secessionism: It also influences other Secessionist movements like Kuki insurgents, Bodo rebels and ULFA (Assam), HNLC (Meghalaya), NLFT (Tripura) etc in many states
  • Collaboration with hostile nations – There has been international collaboration with hostile countries like China, Pakistan, and Myanmar.
  • Extortion industry is thriving leading to loss of confidence in law and order situation.

Impact on other NE states:

Those demanding Naga nation seek to assert claims to the Naga inhabited areas of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Manipur and even in Myanmar. The violence and secessionist movements influenced similar groups and tactics in other NE states, destabilizing them.

Measures taken by governments at various levels:

  1. Security related measures:
    • UAPA: Many militant/insurgent groups declared as terrorist organization under UAPA – Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.
    • AFSPA: Most of NE declared as ‘Disturbed Areas’ under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958.
    • CAPF: Deployment of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs).
  • Surrender and Rehabilitation Policy: Onetime payment and vocational training.
  1. Center’s assistance to States:
  • Assistance for additional battalions: Sanction of India Reserve (IR) battalions, setting up of Counter Insurgency and Anti Terrorism (CIAT) schools;
  • Scheme for Modernization of State Police Forces (MPF scheme).
  1. Border Management:
  • Deployment of Assam Rifles along the Myanmar border and strengthening border fencing.
  1. Development related measures:
  • Infrastructure creation- Road, Rail, Telecom, Power and Waterways sectors
  • Agriculture – Horticulture promotion, Organic Farming etc.
  • Employment – Capacity building, Tourism, Skills training and industrial development.
  • Act East Policy- to link ASEAN with our North East.
  1. Attempts for political solution:
  • Tripartite Naga Accord signed in 2015
  • Greater autonomy and decentralization
  • Special provisions like VI Schedule, Article 371 C for Manipur, Hill Councils etc.

Naga Accord has given opportunity for peace and stability in region, which can be utilized for development so that people can be weaned away from insurgency and illegal activities. At the same time more clarity can be brought regarding Naga peace accord to allay fears of neighboring states.

Subjects : Security Issues

Everything about Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C

Headline : Hepatitis B and C major killers, but few know it

Details :

In News:

  • On the World Hepatitis Day, the Union health minister pledged to join a campaign initiated by the Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences (ILBS) to create awareness about the disease.

Context of the topic:

  • In India, more people are dying of Hepatitis B and C than HIV, malaria and dengue combined and yet the awareness about the disease remains low.

 

In Focus: Hepatitis

What is Hepatitis?

  • Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver.
  • The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer.
  • Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.

Note: Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue.

Types of Viral Hepatitis

  • Viral infections of the liver that are classified as hepatitis include hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E.
  • A different virus is responsible for each type of virally transmitted hepatitis.
  • These 5 types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread.
  • In particular, types B and C are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer.

Causes:

  • Hepatitis A and E are typically caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water.
  • Hepatitis B, C and D usually occur as a result of parenteral contact with infected body fluids.
    • Common modes of transmission for these viruses include receipt of contaminated blood or blood products, invasive medical procedures using contaminated equipment and for hepatitis B transmission from mother to baby at birth, from family member to child, and also by sexual contact.

Hepatitis A

  • Hepatitis A infections are in many cases mild, with most people making a full recovery and remaining immune from further Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) infections. However, HAV infections can also be severe and life threatening.
  • Most people in areas of the world with poor sanitation have been infected with this virus.
  • Transmission of the Virus:
    • Through consumption of contaminated water or food.
    • Certain sex practices can also spread Hepatitis A Virus (HAV).
  • Vaccination availability:
    • Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HAV.

Hepatitis B

  • Hepatitis B is a viral infection caused by Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease.
  • According to WHO, in 2015, 257 million people suffered from Hepatitis B infection (defined as Hepatitis B surface antigen positive).
  • Infections in India: India harbours 10-15% of the entire pool of Hepatitis B virus carriers in the world and 15-25% of these patients are likely to suffer from cirrhosis, scarring of the liver and liver cancer and likely to die prematurely.
  • Transmission of the Virus:
    • Exposure to infective blood, semen, and other body fluids.
    • From infected mother to infant at the time of birth or from family member to infant in early childhood.
  • Vaccination availability:
    • Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV.
    • All infants should get a shot as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. It, however, can be taken at any age

Hepatitis C

  • Transmission of the Virus (HCV) :
    • Through unsafe injection practices
    • Transfusion of unscreened blood and its products
    • Sexual practices that lead to exposure of blood of an infected individual
  • Vaccination availability:
    • There is no preventive vaccine for Hepatitis C, which is a major cause of liver cancer.

Hepatitis D

  • Transmission of the Virus:
    • The Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) infections occur only in those who are infected with HBV.
    • The dual infection of HDV and HBV can result in a more serious disease and worse outcome.
  • Vaccination availability:
    • Hepatitis B vaccines provide protection from HDV infection.

Hepatitis E

  • Hepatitis E Virus is a common cause of hepatitis outbreaks in developing parts of the world and is increasingly recognized as an important cause of disease in developed countries
  • Transmission of the Virus:
    • Consumption of contaminated water or food.
  • Vaccination availability:
    • Safe and effective vaccines to prevent HEV infection have been developed but are not widely available.

Hepatitis B and C: Major Risks

  • According to the global hepatitis  report,  2017  Hepatitis B and C, the two main types of the five different hepatitis infections (A,B,C,D,E), are responsible for 96% of overall viral hepatitis related mortality.

 

About National Viral Hepatitis Control Program

  • The National Viral Hepatitis Control Program has been launched by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, on the occasion of the World Hepatitis Day, 28th July 2018.
  • It is an integrated initiative for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis in India to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3.3 which aims to ending viral hepatitis by 2030.
  • This is a comprehensive plan covering the entire gamut from Hepatitis A, B, C, D & E, and the whole range from prevention, detection and treatment to mapping treatment outcomes.

Aim

  • Combat hepatitis and achieve country wide elimination of Hepatitis C by 2030
  • Achieve significant reduction in the infected population, morbidity and mortality associated with Hepatitis B and C i.e. Cirrhosis and Hepato-cellular carcinoma (liver cancer)
  • Reduce the risk, morbidity and mortality due to Hepatitis A and E.

Key Objectives:

  • Enhance community awareness on hepatitis and lay stress on preventive measures among general population especially high-risk groups and in hotspots.
  • Provide early diagnosis and management of viral hepatitis at all levels of healthcare
  • Develop standard diagnostic and treatment protocols for management of viral hepatitis and its complications.
  • Strengthen the existing infrastructure facilitiescapacity building of existing human resources and raise additional human resources, where required, for providing comprehensive services for management of viral hepatitis and its complications in all districts of the country.
  • Develop linkages with the existing National programs towards awareness, prevention, diagnosis and treatment for viral hepatitis.
  • Develop a web-based “Viral Hepatitis Information and Management System” to maintain a registry of persons affected with viral hepatitis and its sequelae.

Components:

  • Preventive component
    • Awareness generation & behaviour change communication
    • Immunization of Hepatitis B (birth dose, high risk groups, health care workers)
    • Safety of blood and blood products
    • Injection safety, safe socio-cultural practices
    • Safe drinking water, hygiene and sanitary toilets
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Monitoring and Evaluation, Surveillance and Research
  • Training and Capacity Building

 

Way ahead:

  • To make the programme successful and to ensure all persons suffering from Hepatitis B and C get treatment, there is need of more funds.
  • However, with the recent reductions in the costs of diagnosing and treating viral hepatitis, countries can scale up investments in eliminating the disease.
  • Also, mass campaigns are needed to create awareness about its vaccination.

 

Section : Social Issues

Nelson Mandela found motivation in his struggle for freedom from oppression in Mahatma Gandhi?

Nelson Mandela found motivation in his struggle for freedom from oppression in Mahatma Gandhi?
Approach:
  • Briefly explain about Nelson Mandela
  • Throw light on the factors and values which deeply impacted Mandela and his struggle
  • Conclude Appropriately
Model Answer :
I could never reach the standard of morality, simplicity and love for the poor set by the Mahatma. While Gandhi was a human without weaknesses, I am a man of many weaknesses.” ~ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid political leader who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country’s first democratically elected black head of state. Mandela called Gandhi his ‘political guru’ and a ‘role model’.
Gandhi and Mandela:
Gandhi is most revered in South Africa for his commitment to non-violence and the Mandela-led Movement against apartheid in South Africa was strongly influenced by this Gandhian philosophy. Gandhi and Mandela had a shared conviction that all suppressed people, whatever their differences of religion or ethnicity or caste, must stand together against their oppressors.
Inspiration from Satyagraha:
It was in South Africa that Gandhi first experimented with truth, and developed Satyagraha as a philosophy and a method of struggle. Gandhi’s Satyagraha campaign, a compelling act of passive protest against oppression, inspired the formation of the African National Congress (ANC) as well as strengthening Mandela’s belief in the shared humanity. Inspired by Satyagraha campaign’s way of passive, nonviolent political resistance, the ANC launched the first mass movement against apartheid.
Non-violence: Nelson Mandela truly believed that Gandhi’s nonviolent ways of protesting were stimulating, and saw saw nonviolence as an integral part of the anti-apartheid movement. But he wasn’t as absolutist as Gandhi when it came to violence, and he wasn’t bound to non-violence when peaceful protest was met with violence. However, the use of violence by the ANC overall was limited.
Forgiveness: Mandela learned from Gandhi the essential virtues of forgiveness and compassion, values that served him and his country very well when he became the President.
After his release in prison, Mandela often visited India, and was also conferred with the Bharat Ratna. As a strong follower of Gandhi’s teachings, he was awarded the International Gandhi Peace Price in 2001 for his peacemaking efforts by the Indian government. Both the leaders are recognized for their contribution in world peace.

Subjects : Ethics – Essence

What is the rationale behind the special arrangement for administration of tribal areas under Sixth Schedule of the Constitution? In this respect also enumerate the key features of administration of tribal areas.

What is the rationale behind the special arrangement for administration of tribal areas under Sixth Schedule of the Constitution? In this respect also enumerate the key features of administration of tribal areas.

Approach

  • Introduce the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution
  • Explain the rationale behind special arrangement
  • Enumerate the key features of administration of tribal areas as per Schedule VI
  • Conclude Appropriately
Model Answer :

The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution contains special provisions for the administration of the tribal areas in four states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. These areas are given special treatment and autonomy for self government for the following reasons:

  • The tribal people in other parts of India have comparatively adopted the culture of the people in whose midst they live. But the tribal areas under schedule six still have roots in their own culture, customs and civilisation.
  • They were not much assimilated with ways and lives of the other people, and thus, the areas under schedule six were deemed to be requiring special treatment.

The key features of administration of tribal areas under schedule six are:

  • The tribal areas in the mentioned states are constituted as autonomous districts, but they are within the executive jurisdiction of the state government.
  • The autonomous district has a district council consisting of 26 elected and 4 nominated members. The elected members hold office for 5 years and nominated members hold office during the pleasure of the governor. Examples: Bodoland Territorial Council in Assam, Garo Hills Autonomous District Council in Meghalaya etc.
  • The Governor and President, as the case may be, decide whether parliament and state laws apply to these regions or they apply with specified modification and exception.
  • Each autonomous region also has a regional council.
  • The district and regional council can legislate on certain areas like land, forests, marriage & customs, etc. Such laws need the assent of the Governor.
  • The autonomous district can be further divided into autonomous regions by the governor.
  • The organisation or reorganisation like changing areas, names, etc. of these autonomous districts can be done by the Governor of respective state.
  • Village council or court of trial for suits and cases between tribes can be constituted by regional and district council having territorial jurisdiction.
  • The assessment and collection of land revenue along with imposition of specified taxes can be done by the district and regional council.

The provisions under the schedule six ensure that the ways of life of the tribal areas are preserved and protected by making the tribals participants in their administration.

Subjects : Polity

Trace the journey of working class movement in India since the advent of modern industries. How did this disparate group emerge as an organized class in late 1920s onwards?

Trace the journey of working class movement in India since the advent of modern industries. How did this disparate group emerge as an organized class in late 1920s onwards?

Approach

  • Introduce the advent of working class.
  • Trace the development of all India class consciousness in various phases.
  • Conclude appropriately.
Model Answer :

The modern worker makes his appearance in India in the second half of 19th century with the slow beginnings of Railways and modern industries. Before the nationalists began to associate with working class agitations towards the end of 19th century, there were several strikes, agitations. But these were sporadic, spontaneous and unorganized revolts based on economic grievances.

  • Phase 1 (1850s -1900): In this phase the worker class remained largely unorganized on a class basis. There were some early attempts at organized effort to improve the conditions of workers. Ex: Workingmen’s club by Sasipada Banerjee in Bengal. One major reason for the relatively lukewarm attitude of the early nationalists was that during this phase they didn’t wish to create any divisions within the ranks of Indian people. Thus, we notice lack of class consciousness among workers in this period.
  • Phase 2: With the coming of Swadeshi movement, the situation began to change rapidly and the nationalists took up the task of organizing stable trade unions, strikes etc. Thus, there was a perceptible shift from purely economic issues to wider political issues.
  • Phase 3 (1910 onwards): In this phase, there was a close integration of workers movement with the national movement and class consciousness was fast developing among the workers. The formation of Ahmedabad Textile Labor Association in 1918, All India Trade Union Congress in 1920 were the important events of this phase.

Emergence as an organized class:

  • Phase 4 (late 1920s onwards): The impetus given by the Russian Revolution in 1917 helped the leftist ideas to have a significant impact on the working-class movement. WPPs (workers and peasant’s parties) organized by various communist groups were rapidly gaining in strength within the Congress. Communist influence on the trade movement became very strong since late 1920s and onwards. After that almost all the trade unions barring few identified themselves with the radical leftist ideas and the working class emerged as an organized, self-conscious class in 1920s.

This process of emergence of working class as an organized, all India class is inextricably linked with the growth of national movement as Indian working class could not exist before the notion of ‘Indian’ people had begun to take root.

Subjects : History Modern