About Hornbill Watch

About Hornbill Watch Hornbill Watch is an online platform created to record public sightings of hornbills from anywhere in India. Hornbill Watch was launched in 2014 by Nature Conservation Foundation (NCF) and Conservation India (CI). It is a citizen science project to encourage birders, nature enthusiasts, and photographers to share information on hornbill presence, behaviour, … Continue reading About Hornbill Watch

Basel Convention- 1989

Basel Convention- 1989 • Basel convention is formally called as The Basel Convention on the Control of TransboundaryMovements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. • The Convention was opened for signature on 22 March 1989, and entered into force on 5 May 1992. • India ratified the Convention in June 24, 1992.   Background • The Basel Convention was adopted by the Conference of … Continue reading Basel Convention- 1989

Issues related to groundwater

Issues related to groundwater Issues of over-exploitation: The South Asia Ground Water Forum says the region is the largest user of groundwater, accounting for nearly 50% of the total groundwater pumped for irrigation globally. Groundwater abstracted in the Indo-Gangetic basin is about one-fourth of the global total. India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh are, respectively, the first, … Continue reading Issues related to groundwater

About Climate Change Performance Index 2019

About Climate Change Performance Index 2019 The Climate Change Performance Index is an instrument designed to enhance transparency in international climate politics. The index evaluates the climate protection performance of 56 countries and the European Union which are together responsible for more than 90% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The CCPI fully incor­porates the Paris Agreement measuring … Continue reading About Climate Change Performance Index 2019

About Pondicherry shark

About Pondicherry shark Known as ‘Pala Sora’ in the local parlance, the Pondicherry Shark is on the verge of extinction. Scientifically known as Carcharhinus hemiodon, it belongs to the Carcharhinidae family with a growth of 3.3 feet. It is identified by its black tips of dorsal, pectoral and Tai fins. The front teeth are distinctly … Continue reading About Pondicherry shark

About Great Indian Bustard

About Great Indian Bustard • The Great Indian Bustard is one of the largest flying birdsin the world. • It is also one of the heaviest flying birds that weigh up to 15 kg. • It is considered to be the flagship grassland speciesbeing endemic to the grasslands of India. • Further the great Indian bustard is classified as “critically endangered” in the IUCN Red List. • Accordingly it a “schedule I … Continue reading About Great Indian Bustard

About Harrier (Bird)

About Harrier (Bird) Harrier, any of about 11 species of hawks of the subfamily Circinae (family Accipitridae). They are plain-looking, long-legged, and long-tailed birds of slender build that cruise low over meadows and marshes looking for mice, snakes, frogs, small birds, and insects. Harriers are about 50 cm (20 inches) long, have small beaks, and … Continue reading About Harrier (Bird)

Water striders

Water stridersThey are small insects that are adapted for life on top of still water.By using surface tension to their advantage, they can walk on water.Water acts different at the surface.Water molecules are attracted to each other and like to stay together, especially on the surface where there is only air above.The attraction between water … Continue reading Water striders

About Bio-plastics

About Bio-plastics Bioplastic are a category of plastics derived from renewable bio-based resources. Conventional plastics are made from petroleum-based raw materials, bioplastics are made from 20 percent or more of renewable materials. Bioplastic can be both biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Bio-plastics can also be non-biobased but biodegradable.       Types of Bioplastics Depending on the … Continue reading About Bio-plastics


Tannery A tannery is the place where the skins are processed. Tanning hide into leather involves a process which permanently alters the protein structure of skin. The alteration makes it more durable and less susceptible to decomposition and also possibly coloring it. Tanning is a widespread, global industry that works with both light and heavy types … Continue reading Tannery

Disease Burden due to Air pollution

Key Findings According to the report every 1 in 8 deaths in India occur due to air pollution. About 1.24 million deaths in India in 2017 occurred due to air pollution. This makes India is the leader in deaths and disease burden due to air pollution with 26% of the global deaths and disease burden … Continue reading Disease Burden due to Air pollution

About Indian Himalayan region

About Indian Himalayan region The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is stretched across a length of 2,500 km and width of 250 to 300 km. The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) spans 10 hill States viz., Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and two partial hill States – Assam … Continue reading About Indian Himalayan region

About Heavy-Metals contamination

About Heavy-Metals contamination Heavy metals are metallic elements with an atomic number greater than 20. They are trace elements having a density at least five times that of water. Some of these elements are necessary for growth, development and functioning of living organisms These include Copper, zinc, chromium, iron etc. Those which are unnecessary include … Continue reading About Heavy-Metals contamination

Plastic pollution: A background

Plastic pollution: A background The world has produced over nine billion tons of plastic since the 1950s. 165 million tons have reached the oceans, with almost 9 million more tons being added each year. According to UN Environmental Programme, UNEP, a staggering 6.5 million tonnes of plastic are being dumped alone in our oceans each … Continue reading Plastic pollution: A background


Cyclones Cyclones are centres of low pressure surrounded by closed isobars and having increasing pressure outwards. As air enters an area of low pressure from all directions, the Coriolis Effect bends the direction of the wind to the right of its path. This creates a counter clockwise rotation around the low and convergence near the centre of the system. As … Continue reading Cyclones

About Bt cotton

About Bt cotton:Bt cotton is a genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically modified pest resistant plant cotton variety, which produces an insecticide to bollworm. What is Bt (Bacillus Thuringiensis)?Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterium that occurs naturally in the soil and produces proteins that kill certain insects.Through biotechnology, scientists can use these naturally occurring Bt proteins … Continue reading About Bt cotton

Digital North East Vision 2022

Digital North East Vision 2022 Aim: To enhance peoples’ lives by capacity building of government staff and doubling BPO strength in the region About the document: The document emphasises leveraging digital technologies to transform lives of people of the North East and enhance the ease of living.The document identifies eight digital thrust areas: Digital infrastructureDigital … Continue reading Digital North East Vision 2022

Plastic Waste Generation in India

Plastic Waste Generation in India According to CPCB data, about 5.6 million tonnes of plastic waste is generated annually in India. About 15,000 tonnes of plastic waste is generated every day. Delhi contributes highest plastic waste generating about 690 tonnes every day, followed by Chennai, Kolkata and Mumbai. Types of Plastic Waste and their sources PET (Polyethylene … Continue reading Plastic Waste Generation in India

Background: Arctic Region and Climate change

Background: Arctic Region and Climate change Arctic region is an enormous area around the North Pole spreading over one-sixth of the earth’s landmass. It is increasingly being affected by external global forces - environmental, commercial and strategic. Therefore it is poised to play an increasingly greater role in shaping the course of world affairs. Climate … Continue reading Background: Arctic Region and Climate change

About Remote Sensing-based Monitoring

About Remote Sensing-based Monitoring   Under remote sensing technology, a light source and a detector is placed on the side of the road or at a height to transmit a laser beam. The laser beam thus transmitted can measure the exhaust emissions remotely via spectroscopy as vehicles pass by and cross the light path. The … Continue reading About Remote Sensing-based Monitoring

About Niligiri Tahr

About Niligiri Tahr Basics NilgiriTahr is an endangered, hoofed mammal endemic to the Western Ghats. Historically, this animal was found everywhere in the Western Ghats, but currently only 3,000 exist and their habitat is restricted to one tenth of their original range.   Key Facts Common Name: Nilgiri tahr Scientific Name: Nilgiri tragushylocrius Population: Around … Continue reading About Niligiri Tahr

About the draft ‘India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP)’

About the draft 'India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP)' The ICAP provides a 20-year perspective (2017-18 to 2037-38) to address the cooling requirements across sectors and ways and means to provide access to sustainable cooling for all. India is the first country in world to develop such a document (ICAP), which addresses cooling requirement across sectors and … Continue reading About the draft ‘India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP)’

About Sea Kraits

About Sea Kraits Sea Kraits are amphibious sea snakes of the genus ‘Laticauda’ They are commonly known as banded sea snakes. They rely entirely on aquatic prey especially coral reefs. They have adapted to aquatic life with flattened paddle-like tail, salt-excreting glands, and enlarged lungs. Sea kraits retain an oviparous mode of reproduction. Thus they … Continue reading About Sea Kraits

N2 Cycle

Background: Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen, which makes up 78 percent of our atmosphere, is an essential nutrient for all life forms. Nitrogen is an integral part of many molecules like proteins, nucleic acids DNA and RNA and some vitamins. Atmospheric nitrogen is inert and cannot be used by life forms directly. This atmospheric nitrogen has to … Continue reading N2 Cycle

Plastic Roads: A backgrounder

Plastic Roads: A backgrounder Plastic roads are in vogue lately with Centre for Studies on Solid Waste Management, working on use of shredded plastic in asphalt in road construction. The process of making plastic roads was patented in 2006.   What are Plastic roads? Plastic roads are tar roads constructed out of asphalt mixed with … Continue reading Plastic Roads: A backgrounder

Desertification of Aravalis

What is Desertification? Land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas brought about by factors such as climatic variations and human activities is called as desertification.   Shrinking of forests in ‘gap areas’ The Aravalis have always acted as a barrier to sand migration. The direction of wind is mainly from south-west and north-east. The … Continue reading Desertification of Aravalis


What is drought? Drought is a temporary aberration, unlike aridity or even seasonal aridity (in terms of a well defined dry season), which is a permanent feature of climate. Drought in contrast is a recurrent, yet sporadic feature of climate, known to occur under all climatic regimes and is usually characterized by variability in terms … Continue reading Drought

World Wetland Day

About Ramsar Convention on Wetland It is a convention on Wetlands, signed at Ramsar, Iran, in 1971. It is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. There are presently 158 Contracting Parties to the Convention. It is the … Continue reading World Wetland Day

About Cheetah

About Cheetah It is the fastest land animal in the world. The cheetah's slender, long-legged body is built for speed. Cheetahs are tan in color with black spots all over their bodies. They can also be distinguished from other big cats by their smaller size, spotted coats, small heads and ears and distinctive "tear stripes" … Continue reading About Cheetah