About United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
- The United Nations Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.
- It has 15 Members, and each Member has one vote.
- There are five permanent members: China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and 10 non-permanent members elected for two-year terms by the UN General Assembly.
- Under the Charter of the United Nations, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions.
- The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression.
- It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement.
- In some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security.
- The Committee makes its decision by consensus. Even if even a single member opposes a decision, there is no consensus
- If a terrorist or terrorist organisation is included in this list, it helps in restricting their movement, financial penalties and assets freeze among other
- An assets freeze under the sanctions committee requires that all states freeze without delay the funds and other financial assets or economic resources of designated individuals and entitie.
- Thus, UNSC designation will subject Azhar to an assets freeze, travel ban and an arms embargo.
India’s attempts to list Azhar at the UNSC:
- The UN had banned the Jaish-e Mohammad in 2001. But India’s efforts to ban Masood Azhar after the Mumbai terror attack were not successful as China has repeatedly blocked the move.
- Three attempts to designate Azhar as global terrorist, in 2009, 2016 and 2017, have been blocked by China at Pakistan’s behest.
- Backing India’s efforts, a new proposal to designate Azhar a global terrorist was moved in the UN Security Council with the backing of permanent members France, US and UK (which came in response to the Pulwama attack).
- China again stalled India’s bid to list Masood Azhar as a global terrorist by putting a technical hold for six months.
- However, China has recently lifted technical hold after Beijing found no objection to the listing proposal.
- By not objecting to Azhar’s listing at Pakistan’s behest, China had finally shifted from its position after 10 years of consistent stalling to designate him as a global terrorist at the UN Security Council Resolution 1267 sanctions committee.
How India got China on board?
- India had hectic negotiations with China since it put a technical hold in March, 2019.
- India’s Foreign Secretary’s diplomatic visits to Washington, Beijing and Moscow were indicators of stepped-up diplomacy.
- In addition, US proposal to start a fresh move to list Azhar by moving a resolution (along with UK and France), at the UNSC for discussions leading to a public vote, also put immense pressure on China.
- However India-China issues remain like NSG membership, UNSC membership, border dispute, trade deficit, but China took the call to remove one contentious issue (Azhar) off the bilateral table.
Section : International Relation