Right against Exploitation
Art 23: Forced labor/ Traffic
- No forced labor – slavery – servitude
- No trafficking
- State can force for public interest
Art 24: Child labor
- < 14 – no hazardous and non hazardous regulated by state
- The government had brought a new law to govern child labour, known as the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016, which put a blanket ban on employment of children below 14 years of age. However, it had made two exceptions in favour of child labour: children could work as child artistes (in the entertainment sector), and could “help” in their family enterprises.
- New bill – ban until 14 yrs except family enterprise (shouldn’t be hazardous) and entertainment industry, that too after school hours and on vacations only. And 18 yrs ban for hazardous
- Child welfare fund
- Very similar to electrons
- Second most abundant particles after photon
- Don’t carry any charge
- Are not massless
- Neutrinos are miniscule particles created in nuclear reactions, such as in the birth and death of sun and the stars, or in nuclear power plants.
- Neutrinos interact with matter via the weak force. The weakness of this force gives neutrinos the property that matter is almost trans- parent to them.
- Since they rarely interact, these neutrinos pass through the Sun, and even the Earth, unhindered. There are many other natural sources of neutrinos including exploding stars (supernovae), relic neutrinos, natural radioactivity, and cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere of the Earth.
Indian Neutrino Observatory (INO) project —
INO, a proposed, underground observatory in Tamil Nadu to detect ephemeral particles called neutrinos — had been cleared by the Union government in 2015, after several years of deliberations, but has been stalled for over a year due to protests by activist groups, concerned over its environmental impact.