Quotes for Essays:

Quotes for Essays:

1) Gandhi: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/mahatma-gandhi-quotes-for-essays/

2) Marx: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/karl-marx-quotes/

3) Aristotle: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/aristotle-quotes-for-essay/

Telegram: https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS www.upscexpress.com

4) Buddha: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/indian-political-thoughts-buddha-quotes/

5) Plato: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/plato-quotes-for-essay/

6) Ambedkar: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/dr-babasaheb-ambedkar-quotes/

7) Kautilya: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/kautilya-chanakya-quotes/

8) Aurobindo Ghosh: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/aurobindo-ghosh-quotes-for-essay/

9) Socrates: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/western-political-thoughts-socrates-quotes/

10) Machiaveli : https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/%E2%80%8Bmachiavelli-father-of-realism-quotes/

11) Hobbes: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/wesrer-political-thoughts-thomas-hobbes-quotes/

12) Rousseau: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/rousseaus-quotes-father-of-french-revolution/

!3) John Locke: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/john-locke-quotes-man-who-influenced-american-constitution/

14) J.S. Mill: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/j-s-mill-quotes-father-of-liberalism/

15) Gramsci : https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/gramsci-follower-of-marxism-quotes-for-essay-and-ethics/

16) Vivekananda : https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/vivekananda-quotes-on-spiritualism-and-life/

17) Montesquieu: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/montesquieu-quotes-use-in-political-essays/

18) Bentham: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/jeremy-benthams-quotes-father-of-utilitarianism/

19) Voltaire : https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/voltaire-quotes-for-ethical-and-political-questions-and-essays/

20) Hannah Ardent: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/hannah-arendt-vip-quotes-for-essay-and-ethics/

21) Simone de Beauvoir: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/%E2%80%8Bsimone-de-beauvoirs-quotes-an-ardent-feminist/

22) Immanuel Kant https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/immanuel-kant-quotes-use-for-ethical-case-studies/

23) Mother Teresa: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/mother-teresa-quotes-on-peace/

24) F riedrich Nietzsche : https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/%E2%80%8Briedrich-nietzsche/

25) Edmund Burke : https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/edmund-burke/

26) Jean-Paul Satre: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/18/jean-paul-saree-quotes/

27) Sigmund Freud: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/18/sigmund-freud-quotes/

28) Friedrich Hegel: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/20/friedrich-hegel-quotes-ardent-defendant-of-state-as-an-institution/

29) Henry David Thoreau : https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/20/%E2%80%8Bhenry-david-thoreau/

Languages and civilisation Editorial 5th Apr’19 IndianExpress

Headline : Languages and civilisation Editorial 5th Apr’19 IndianExpress 

Details : 

Importance of language:

  • Language is a tool for intellectual and emotional expression.
  • Language is a vehicle for the transmission of culture, scientific knowledge and a worldview across generations.
  • It is the vital, unseen thread that links the past with the present.
  • The great Indian poet Acharya Dandi had said that if the light of language does not exist, we will be groping in a dark world.

Indian literary tradition:

  • There is a rich literary tradition in many languages, especially the ones recognised as classical languages by the Government of India.
  • Modern Indian languages have ancient roots and are derived in some way from the classical languages.

Great Sanskrit literary heritage in India: 

  • Sanskrit, of course, is one of the oldest Indo-European languages, dating back to the second millennium BC.
  • The manuscripts still in existence in Sanskrit number over 30 million, one hundred times those in Greek and Latin combined, constituting the largest cultural heritage that any civilisation has produced before the invention of the printing press.
  • Since studying the classical languages and literature would provide access to authentic sources of history, the National Mission for Manuscripts was set up in 2003.
  • Preservation of ancient texts is only the first step. We need to encourage scholars to do research using these primary sources and unearth new nuggets of knowledge.
  • It is important to study ancient texts and propagate them among modern audiences.

Classical languages of India:

  • Some languages have been given classical language status because of their ancient literary heritage.
  • For instance, Tamil literature dates back to 500 BC, Telugu to 400 BC, Kannada to 450 BC, Malayalam to 1198 AD and Odia to 800 AD.
  • Each of these languages has a rich treasure house of literature, examples include:
    • Sangam literature and Tholkappiyum in Tamil
    • Kavitrayam’s Andhra Mahabharatam in Telugu
    • Ramacharitham of Cheeraman in Malayalam
    • Kavirajamarga of Amoghavarsha in Kannada
    • Kharavela’s inscriptions in Odia
  • For each of the populations speaking these languages, their literature is a matter of pride and distinct identity and the language is a goddess to be revered. There are songs in praise of these languages in Telugu, Kannada and Tamil.

Honouring those working on classical languages:

  • Recently, President’s award was given to scholars of Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit, Arabic, Persian, Telugu, Kannada, Odia and Malayalam for their service in the preservation and development of classical languages.
  • It shows nation’s appreciation and recognition to renowned scholars who are keeping alive the traditional knowledge and acting as the intellectual bridge between the past and the present.

Falling linguistic diversity of India harms our cultural richness:

  • India is a multilingual country where more than 19,500 languages or dialects are spoken.
  • However, studies by experts estimate that almost 600 languages are on the verge of extinction and that more than 250 languages have disappeared in the past 60 years.  
  • Almost 97 per cent of the population speaks one of the 22 scheduled languages.
  • When a language dies, an entire culture dies.

Preserving and developing India’s linguistic heritage: 

  • Our languages are a crucial part of our history, our culture and our evolution as a society.
  • It is important to protect and conserve our linguistic heritage.
  • Protecting our cultural heritage, including languages, is our constitutionally-mandated duty.

Leveraging technology:

  • The resources required to develop language technology and artificial intelligence-based tools are inadequate or unavailable for many Indian languages.
  • We must harness the power of technology to preserve and promote our languages and culture.

Governmental efforts:

  • The Government of India launched the Linguistic Data Consortium for Indian Languages (LDC-IL) in 2008 and has been preparing high-quality linguistic resources over the last 11 years in all the scheduled languages of India.
  • The Data Distribution Portal is also being launched, where more and varied datasets will be added using several types of AI-based technologies such as automatic dictation, speech recognition, language understanding, machine translation, grammar and spell check.
  • The Central Institute of Indian Languages has been doing commendable work to provide linguistic resources in Indian languages.

A multi-pronged approach:

  • Language preservation and development needs a multi-pronged approach.
    • Education: It should begin at the primary school level and be continued to higher levels of education. Functional literacy in at least one language should be ensured.
    • Usage at homes: More and more people should start using their native languages at home, in the community, in meetings and in administration.
    • Encouraging literature: More people should write poetry, stories, novels and dramas in these languages. We must accord a sense of dignity and a sense of pride to those who speak, write and communicate in these languages.
    • Publications: We must encourage Indian language publications, journals and children’s books.
    • Dialects and folk literature must be given adequate focus.

Conclusion:

  • Language promotion should be an integral part of good governance.
  • Language should become a catalyst for inclusive development.
  • By harnessing technology, the mission of “digital India” can be a mission for a literate India and a mission for an inclusive knowledge society.

Importance:

GS Paper I: Society

Section : Editorial Analysis

Right against Exploitation 

Right against Exploitation

Art 23: Forced labor/ Traffic 

  • No forced labor – slavery – servitude
  • No trafficking
  • State can force for public interest
  • conscription
  • punishable

Art 24: Child labor 

  • Punishable
  • < 14 – no hazardous and non hazardous regulated by state
  • The government had brought a new law to govern child labour, known as the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016, which put a blanket ban on employment of children below 14 years of age. However, it had made two exceptions in favour of child labour: children could work as child artistes (in the entertainment sector), and could “help” in their family enterprises.
  • New bill – ban until 14 yrs except family enterprise (shouldn’t be hazardous) and entertainment industry, that too after school hours and on vacations only. And 18 yrs ban for hazardous
  • Child welfare fund

Everything about Cyberwar?

What is Cyberwar?

  • Cyberwar is a form of war which takes places on computers and the Internet, through electronic means rather than physical ones.
  • With an increasing global reliance on technology for everything from managing national electrical grids to ordering supplies for troops, cyberwar is a method of attack which many nations are vulnerable to.
  • In cyberwar, people use technological means to launch a variety of attacks.
  • Some of these attacks take a very conventional form. Computers can be used, for example, for propaganda, espionage, and vandalism.
  • Denial of service attacks can be used to shut down websites, silencing the enemy and potentially disrupting their government and industry by creating a distraction.
  • Cyberwar can also be utilized to attack equipment and infrastructure, which is a major concern for heavily industrialized nations which rely on electronic systems for many tasks.

Challenges to India’s National Security:

  • India’s reliance on technology reflects from the fact that India is shifting gears by entering into facets of e-governance.
  • India has already brought sectors like income tax, passports” visa under the realm of e -governance.
  • Sectors like police and judiciary are to follow.
  • The travel sector is also heavily reliant on this.
  • Most of the Indian banks have gone on full-scale computerization.
  • This has also brought in concepts of e-commerce and e-banking.
  • The stock markets have also not remained immune.
  • To create havoc in the country these are lucrative targets to paralyze the economic and financial institutions.
  • The damage done can be catastrophic and irreversible.

Challenges and Concerns:

  • Some challenges and concerns are highlighted below :­
  • Lack of awareness and the culture of cyber security at individual as well as institutional level.
  • Lack of trained and qualified manpower to implement the counter measures.
  • Too many information security organisations which have become weak due to ‘turf wars’ or financial compulsions.
  • A weak IT Act which has became redundant due to non exploitation and age old cyber laws.
  • No e-mail account policy especially for the defence forces, police and the agency personnel.
  • Cyber attacks have come not only from terrorists but also from neighboring countries inimical to our National interests.

What is Seagrasses? 

  • Seagrasses are flowering plants that form dense underwater beds in shallow water. Distinct from seaweed, the plants provide shelter and food for a large range of animals, including fish, marine mammals and birds.
  • Many seagrass meadows have been lost because of human activities, say researchers.
  • Seagrasses are also knows as “lungs of the sea”
  • Seagrass, which is found in shallow waters of coastal regions on every continent except Antarctica, is declining globally at a rate of about 2% a year.
  • The loss of seagrass puts the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people at risk and exposes many people to increasing levels of poverty. “Seagrass loss also places the viability of our remaining populations of green turtle, dugong (also known as ‘sea cow’) and species of seahorse at risk.”

Neutrino and Indian Neutrino Observatory

Neutrino

  • Very similar to electrons
  • Second most abundant particles after photon
  • Don’t carry any charge
  • Are not massless
  • Neutrinos are miniscule particles created in nuclear reactions, such as in the birth and death of sun and the stars, or in nuclear power plants.
  • Neutrinos interact with matter via the weak force. The weakness of this force gives neutrinos the property that matter is almost trans- parent to them.
  • Since they rarely interact, these neutrinos pass through the Sun, and even the Earth, unhindered. There are many other natural sources of neutrinos including exploding stars (supernovae), relic neutrinos, natural radioactivity, and cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere of the Earth.

 

Indian Neutrino Observatory (INO) project 

INO, a proposed, underground observatory in Tamil Nadu to detect ephemeral particles called neutrinos — had been cleared by the Union government in 2015, after several years of deliberations, but has been stalled for over a year due to protests by activist groups, concerned over its environmental impact.

Bitcoin

  • Bitcoin is a digital currency that is not supported by any country’s government or central bank.
  • It can be traded for services or goods with sellers who accept bitcoins as payment.
  • Bitcoin was first  introduced in October 2008. It was invented by an unidentified programmer, or group of programmers, under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto.
  • The system is peer-to-peer (person to person using bitcoins) and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary (like Bank).
  • Bitcoin transactions are seen by the entire network within a few seconds which are verified by network nodes  and are usually recorded into Bitcoin’s world wide ledger (record of transactions) called the blockchain, in the next block.
  • Bitcoin isn’t owned by anyone. Anyone can use it, but there isn’t a single company that is in charge of it.
  • So, Bitcoin payments are impossible to block, and bitcoin wallets can’t be frozen (unlike the currency we use that government can regulate).
  • Unlike government issued money, that can be inflated at will (by increasing or decreasing the money supply), the supply of bitcoin is mathematically limited to twenty one million bitcoins, and that can never be changed.
  • Bitcoins are impossible to counterfeit (as they are encrypted, hence also called Crypto-currency). Bitcoin’s price is determined by the laws of supply and demand.

Everything About the Rajya Sabha

Rajyasabha

  • Our Parliament comprises of the President and the two Houses—Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
  • The origin of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) can be traced to the Montague-Chelmsford Report of 1918.
  • The Government of India Act, 1919 provided for the creation of a ‘Council of State’ as a second chamber of the then legislature with a restricted franchise which actually came into existence in 1921. The Governor-General was the ex-officio President of the then Council of State.
  • The Government of India Act, 1935, hardly made any changes in its composition.
  • The Constituent Assembly, which first met on 9 December 1946, also acted as the Central Legislature till 1950, when it was converted as ‘Provisional Parliament’.
  • During this period, the Central Legislature which was known as Constituent Assembly (Legislative) and later Provisional Parliament was unicameral till the first elections were held in 1952.
  • Extensive debate took place in the Constituent Assembly regarding the utility or otherwise of a Second Chamber in Independent India and ultimately, it was decided to have a bicameral legislature for independent India mainly because a federal system was considered to be most feasible form of Government for such a vast country with immense diversities.
  • A single directly elected House, in fact, was considered inadequate to meet the challenges before free India.
  • A second chamber known as the ‘Council of States’, therefore, was created with altogether different composition and method of election from that of the directly elected House of the People.
  • It was conceived as another Chamber, with smaller membership than the Lok Sabha (House of the People).
  • It was meant to be the federal chamber i.e., a House elected by the elected members of Assemblies of the States and two Union Territories in which  States were not given equal representation.
  • Apart from the elected members, provision was also made for the nomination of twelve members to the House by the President.
  • The minimum age of thirty years was fixed for membership as against twenty-five years for the Lower House.
  • The element of dignity and prestige was added to the Council of State House by making the Vice-President of India ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha who presides over its sittings.
  • Article 80 of the Constitution lays down the maximum strength of Rajya Sabha as 250, out of which 12 members are nominated by the President and 238 are representatives of the States and of the two Union Territories.
  • The present strength of Rajya Sabha, however, is 245, out of which 233 are representatives of the States and Union territories of Delhi and Puducherry and 12 are nominated by the President.
  • The members nominated by the President are persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service.
  • The Fourth Schedule to the Constitution provides for allocation of seats to the States and Union Territories in Rajya Sabha.
  • The allocation of seats is made on the basis of the population of each State.
  • Consequent on the reorganization of States and formation of new States, the number of elected seats in the Rajya Sabha allotted to States and Union Territories has changed from time to time since 1952.

GM mosquitoes

  • To suppress wild female Aedes aegypti mosquito populations that cause dengue, chikungunya and Zika were launched in Maharashtra’s Jalna district.
  • The technology uses genetically modified male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that carry a dominant lethal gene. When male GM mosquitoes mate with wild female mosquitoes the lethal gene is passed on to offspring. The lethal gene in the offspring kills the larvae before they reach adulthood.
  • male mosquitoes do not bite humans, the release of GM males will not increase the risk of dengue, chikungunya and Zika.
  • Vector control using A. aegypti infected with the bacterium Wolbachia is achieved by using the life-shortening bacteria strain in both male and female mosquitoes
  • As Wolbachia is maternally inherited, the bacteria are anyway passed on to offspring. Dengue, Zika or chikunguya viruses cannot replicate when mosquitoes have Wolbachia . Unlike the RIDL technology, a feature of Wolbachia is that it is self-sustaining, making it a low-cost intervention.

PM National Relief Fund (PMNRF)

  • The fund consists entirely of public contributions and does not get any budgetary support.
  • The corpus of the fund is invested with banks in fixed deposits.
  • Disbursements are made with the approval of the Prime Minister.
  • PMNRF has not been constituted by the Parliament.
  • The fund is recognized as a Trust under the Income Tax Act and the same is managed by Prime Minister or multiple delegates for national causes.
  • Telegram: https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS

  • PMNRF is exempt under Income Tax Act.
  • Prime Minister is the Chairman of PMNRF and is assisted by Officers/ Staff on honorary basis.
  • These contributions also qualify as CSR (corporate social responsibility) spend for companies, making it more attractive in terms of tax exemptions.
  • PMNRF accepts only voluntary donations by individuals and institutions.
  • Contributions flowing out of budgetary sources of Government or from the balance sheets of the public sector undertakings are not accepted.
  • At the time of natural calamity of devastating scale, Prime Minister, makes an appeal for donation to the fund.