Right against Exploitation 

Right against Exploitation

Art 23: Forced labor/ Traffic 

  • No forced labor – slavery – servitude
  • No trafficking
  • State can force for public interest
  • conscription
  • punishable

Art 24: Child labor 

  • Punishable
  • < 14 – no hazardous and non hazardous regulated by state
  • The government had brought a new law to govern child labour, known as the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016, which put a blanket ban on employment of children below 14 years of age. However, it had made two exceptions in favour of child labour: children could work as child artistes (in the entertainment sector), and could “help” in their family enterprises.
  • New bill – ban until 14 yrs except family enterprise (shouldn’t be hazardous) and entertainment industry, that too after school hours and on vacations only. And 18 yrs ban for hazardous
  • Child welfare fund
Advertisements

Everything about Cyberwar?

What is Cyberwar?

  • Cyberwar is a form of war which takes places on computers and the Internet, through electronic means rather than physical ones.
  • With an increasing global reliance on technology for everything from managing national electrical grids to ordering supplies for troops, cyberwar is a method of attack which many nations are vulnerable to.
  • In cyberwar, people use technological means to launch a variety of attacks.
  • Some of these attacks take a very conventional form. Computers can be used, for example, for propaganda, espionage, and vandalism.
  • Denial of service attacks can be used to shut down websites, silencing the enemy and potentially disrupting their government and industry by creating a distraction.
  • Cyberwar can also be utilized to attack equipment and infrastructure, which is a major concern for heavily industrialized nations which rely on electronic systems for many tasks.

Challenges to India’s National Security:

  • India’s reliance on technology reflects from the fact that India is shifting gears by entering into facets of e-governance.
  • India has already brought sectors like income tax, passports” visa under the realm of e -governance.
  • Sectors like police and judiciary are to follow.
  • The travel sector is also heavily reliant on this.
  • Most of the Indian banks have gone on full-scale computerization.
  • This has also brought in concepts of e-commerce and e-banking.
  • The stock markets have also not remained immune.
  • To create havoc in the country these are lucrative targets to paralyze the economic and financial institutions.
  • The damage done can be catastrophic and irreversible.

Challenges and Concerns:

  • Some challenges and concerns are highlighted below :­
  • Lack of awareness and the culture of cyber security at individual as well as institutional level.
  • Lack of trained and qualified manpower to implement the counter measures.
  • Too many information security organisations which have become weak due to ‘turf wars’ or financial compulsions.
  • A weak IT Act which has became redundant due to non exploitation and age old cyber laws.
  • No e-mail account policy especially for the defence forces, police and the agency personnel.
  • Cyber attacks have come not only from terrorists but also from neighboring countries inimical to our National interests.

What is Seagrasses? 

  • Seagrasses are flowering plants that form dense underwater beds in shallow water. Distinct from seaweed, the plants provide shelter and food for a large range of animals, including fish, marine mammals and birds.
  • Many seagrass meadows have been lost because of human activities, say researchers.
  • Seagrasses are also knows as “lungs of the sea”
  • Seagrass, which is found in shallow waters of coastal regions on every continent except Antarctica, is declining globally at a rate of about 2% a year.
  • The loss of seagrass puts the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people at risk and exposes many people to increasing levels of poverty. “Seagrass loss also places the viability of our remaining populations of green turtle, dugong (also known as ‘sea cow’) and species of seahorse at risk.”

Neutrino and Indian Neutrino Observatory

Neutrino

  • Very similar to electrons
  • Second most abundant particles after photon
  • Don’t carry any charge
  • Are not massless
  • Neutrinos are miniscule particles created in nuclear reactions, such as in the birth and death of sun and the stars, or in nuclear power plants.
  • Neutrinos interact with matter via the weak force. The weakness of this force gives neutrinos the property that matter is almost trans- parent to them.
  • Since they rarely interact, these neutrinos pass through the Sun, and even the Earth, unhindered. There are many other natural sources of neutrinos including exploding stars (supernovae), relic neutrinos, natural radioactivity, and cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere of the Earth.

 

Indian Neutrino Observatory (INO) project 

INO, a proposed, underground observatory in Tamil Nadu to detect ephemeral particles called neutrinos — had been cleared by the Union government in 2015, after several years of deliberations, but has been stalled for over a year due to protests by activist groups, concerned over its environmental impact.

Bitcoin

  • Bitcoin is a digital currency that is not supported by any country’s government or central bank.
  • It can be traded for services or goods with sellers who accept bitcoins as payment.
  • Bitcoin was first  introduced in October 2008. It was invented by an unidentified programmer, or group of programmers, under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto.
  • The system is peer-to-peer (person to person using bitcoins) and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary (like Bank).
  • Bitcoin transactions are seen by the entire network within a few seconds which are verified by network nodes  and are usually recorded into Bitcoin’s world wide ledger (record of transactions) called the blockchain, in the next block.
  • Bitcoin isn’t owned by anyone. Anyone can use it, but there isn’t a single company that is in charge of it.
  • So, Bitcoin payments are impossible to block, and bitcoin wallets can’t be frozen (unlike the currency we use that government can regulate).
  • Unlike government issued money, that can be inflated at will (by increasing or decreasing the money supply), the supply of bitcoin is mathematically limited to twenty one million bitcoins, and that can never be changed.
  • Bitcoins are impossible to counterfeit (as they are encrypted, hence also called Crypto-currency). Bitcoin’s price is determined by the laws of supply and demand.

Everything About the Rajya Sabha

Rajyasabha

  • Our Parliament comprises of the President and the two Houses—Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
  • The origin of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) can be traced to the Montague-Chelmsford Report of 1918.
  • The Government of India Act, 1919 provided for the creation of a ‘Council of State’ as a second chamber of the then legislature with a restricted franchise which actually came into existence in 1921. The Governor-General was the ex-officio President of the then Council of State.
  • The Government of India Act, 1935, hardly made any changes in its composition.
  • The Constituent Assembly, which first met on 9 December 1946, also acted as the Central Legislature till 1950, when it was converted as ‘Provisional Parliament’.
  • During this period, the Central Legislature which was known as Constituent Assembly (Legislative) and later Provisional Parliament was unicameral till the first elections were held in 1952.
  • Extensive debate took place in the Constituent Assembly regarding the utility or otherwise of a Second Chamber in Independent India and ultimately, it was decided to have a bicameral legislature for independent India mainly because a federal system was considered to be most feasible form of Government for such a vast country with immense diversities.
  • A single directly elected House, in fact, was considered inadequate to meet the challenges before free India.
  • A second chamber known as the ‘Council of States’, therefore, was created with altogether different composition and method of election from that of the directly elected House of the People.
  • It was conceived as another Chamber, with smaller membership than the Lok Sabha (House of the People).
  • It was meant to be the federal chamber i.e., a House elected by the elected members of Assemblies of the States and two Union Territories in which  States were not given equal representation.
  • Apart from the elected members, provision was also made for the nomination of twelve members to the House by the President.
  • The minimum age of thirty years was fixed for membership as against twenty-five years for the Lower House.
  • The element of dignity and prestige was added to the Council of State House by making the Vice-President of India ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha who presides over its sittings.
  • Article 80 of the Constitution lays down the maximum strength of Rajya Sabha as 250, out of which 12 members are nominated by the President and 238 are representatives of the States and of the two Union Territories.
  • The present strength of Rajya Sabha, however, is 245, out of which 233 are representatives of the States and Union territories of Delhi and Puducherry and 12 are nominated by the President.
  • The members nominated by the President are persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service.
  • The Fourth Schedule to the Constitution provides for allocation of seats to the States and Union Territories in Rajya Sabha.
  • The allocation of seats is made on the basis of the population of each State.
  • Consequent on the reorganization of States and formation of new States, the number of elected seats in the Rajya Sabha allotted to States and Union Territories has changed from time to time since 1952.

GM mosquitoes

  • To suppress wild female Aedes aegypti mosquito populations that cause dengue, chikungunya and Zika were launched in Maharashtra’s Jalna district.
  • The technology uses genetically modified male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that carry a dominant lethal gene. When male GM mosquitoes mate with wild female mosquitoes the lethal gene is passed on to offspring. The lethal gene in the offspring kills the larvae before they reach adulthood.
  • male mosquitoes do not bite humans, the release of GM males will not increase the risk of dengue, chikungunya and Zika.
  • Vector control using A. aegypti infected with the bacterium Wolbachia is achieved by using the life-shortening bacteria strain in both male and female mosquitoes
  • As Wolbachia is maternally inherited, the bacteria are anyway passed on to offspring. Dengue, Zika or chikunguya viruses cannot replicate when mosquitoes have Wolbachia . Unlike the RIDL technology, a feature of Wolbachia is that it is self-sustaining, making it a low-cost intervention.