Rivers and their tributaries:-

Rivers and their tributaries:-

1)Tributaries of Ganga:
1. Gomti 2. Ghaghra 3. Gandak 4. Kosi 5. Yamuna 6. Son 7. Hoogly

2)Tributaries of Yamuna:
1. Chambal 2. Sindh 3. Betwa 4. Ken 5. Tons 6. Hindon

3)Tributaries of Godavari:
1. Indravati 2. Manjira 3. Bindusara 4. Sarbari 5. Penganga 6.Pranahita

4)Tributaries of Krishna:
1. Tungabhadra 2. Ghataprabha 3. Malaprabha 4. Bhima 5. Vedavati 6. Koyna

5)Tributaries of Cauvery:
1. Kabini 2. Hemavathi 3. Simsha 4. Arkavati 5. Bhavani

6)Tributaries of Narmada:
1. Amaravati 2. Bhukhi 3. Tawa 4. Banger

7)Tributaries of Indus:
1. Sutlej 2. Dras 3. Zanskar 4. Shyok 5.Gilgit 6. Suru

8)Tributaries of Brahmaputra:
1. Dibang 2. Lohit 3. Jia Bhoreli (Kameng) 4. Dikhow 5. Subansiri 6. Manas

9)Tributaries of Damodar:
1. Barakar 2. Konar

10)Tributaries of Ravi:
1. Budhil 2. Nai or Dhona 3. Seul 4. Ujh

11)Tributaries of Mahanadi:
1. Seonath 2. Hasdeo 3. Jonk 4. Mand 5. Ib 6. Ong 7. Tel

National Mineral Policy 2019

National Mineral Policy 2019
National Mineral Policy 2019 replaces the extant National Mineral Policy 2008.
Objective :
The aim of the policy is to have a more effective, meaningful and implementable policy that brings in further transparency, better regulation and enforcement, balanced social and economic growth as well as sustainable mining practices.
Benefits:
Bringing about more effective regulation to the sector and more sustainable approach while addressing the issues of those affected by mining.
Provisions which will give boost to mining sector :
Introduction of Right of First Refusal for the reconnaissance permit (RP) and prospecting license (PL) holders,
Encouraging the private sector to take up exploration,
Auctioning in virgin areas on revenue share basis,
Encouragement of merger and acquisition of mining entities and
Transfer of mining leases and creation of dedicated mineral corridors to boost private sector mining areas.
The policy proposes to grant status of industry to mining activity, it will boost financing of mining for private sector and for acquisitions of mineral assets in other countries by private sector.
Long term import export policy for mineral will help private sector in better planning and stability in business.
The Policy also mentions rationalize reserved areas given to PSUs and putting these areas to auction, will give more opportunity to private sector for participation.
The Policy also mentions to make efforts to harmonize taxes, levies & royalty with world benchmarks to help private sector.
Other Important Features:
Changes introduced in the new policy include focus on Make-in-India initiative and gender sensitivity in terms of the vision.
It also introduces the concept of inter-generational equity that deals with the well-being not only of the present generation but also of the generations to come.
It also proposes to constitute an inter-ministerial body to institutionalise the mechanism for ensuring sustainable development in mining
The policy proposes utilization of the district mineral fund for equitable development of project affected persons and areas

Geography Concepts

El Nino :-

El- Nino is Spanish word for male child ( Christ Child)

El Nino refers to two things:-
1. ceasing of upwelling off west coast of South America (Eastern Pacific Ocean)

2. appearance of warmer waters than average on the surface of ocean off the west coast of South America.

Statistically, El-nino has been found have a negative correlation with India’s summer monsoon rains.

La- Nina:-
Spanish word for Girl Child and refers to the reinforce or augmented or strengthened normal situation in the Eastern Pacific Ocean
Statistically, La- Nina has been found to have positive correlation with India’s summer monsoon rains.

Walker Cell:-
Term walker cell in general refers to prominent east west pressure cell of atmospheric circulation ( especially in tropical areas)

Southern Oscillation:-
It’s given by Sir Gilbert Walker
It refers to sea saw arrangement of atmospheric pressure conditions between Pacific and Indian Ocean.

Southern Oscillation Index :-
(Tahiti’s Atmospheric pressure ) – (Darwin’s atmospheric pressure)

Landform term refers to the earth’s surface configuration e.g Hill, Valley, Plateau, Plain etc…
A given landscape in nature represents stage of external fight between endogenic and exogenic process.

Sun is primary source of energy for exogenic processes.
It’s generally believed that radiative disintegration of element is primary source of energy for endogenic processes.

Endogenic and exogenic processes are collectively referred as geomorphic processes.

Geography Concepts

Doldrums:-
At sea, ITCZ area is called doldrums because sailors in olden days used to get becalmed here.
It’s the region of weak winds (small pressure gradients), High Humidity and High Temperatures occuring heat near equator.

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Horse Latitude:-
In olden days, Zones at about 30 N/S Degree were known as Horse latitude.
When ships were becalmed, horses were thrown to reduce the load.
Here, the air is comparatively dry and winds are calm and light, because of small pressure gradient force.
It’s the region of descending air currents or wind divergent ie. Anti-Cyclonic condition.

Trade Winds:-
Trade winds are most regular of all the planetary winds and in general they blow with great force and in constant direction.

Since trade winds blow from the subtropical latitudes to the warmer equatorial latitudes, they have great capacity of holding moisture.

In their passage across oceans, they gather more moisture and bring heavy rainfall to the east coast of continents.

As their offshore on the west coast, these regions suffer from great aridity and form hot deserts of the world.
E.g. Sahara, Kalahari, Atacama, Great Australian deserts.

Outback:-
Interior area of Australia
The term outback in Australia refers to dry interior region.
Term outback implies “Never Never” ( Never Never go there)

Westerlies:-
Westerlies are much less ( constant and persistent) than trade winds.

Seismic Gap:-
It’s the earthquake prone area where occurs a gap in the occurrence record of major earthquakes.
This means, that statistically, major earthquake is due ie, much more time had elapsed since the last major earthquake than the average time gap between two major earthquake as per the historical occurances.

Liquefaction:-
Earthquake waves gets significantly amplified when they passed through soft grounded ( water saturated alluvial deposits).
Liquefaction is sudden loss of strength of water saturated soils resulting from shaking during an earthquake.
It can cause large ground cracks to open, shaking can cause soils to consolidate and thus to occupy a smaller volume.
During shaking of an earthquake, the water saturated material may result in subsidence, fracturing and horizontal sliding of the ground surface.

Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Argentina

Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Argentina

Details :

Why it is important?

  • Argentina hosted the recent G20 summit in 2018.
  • In Feb 2019, Argentina’s President paid a state visit to India. 2019 is the 70th year of establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries.

 

Argentina

  • Argentina is located mostly in the southern half of the South America.
  • Argentina derives its name from the Latin word for silver, Argentum as Argentina is a great source of valuable minerals.
  • Capital: Buenos Aires
  • Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world and second largest country of South America after Brazil.
  • It shares boundary with : Chile (to the west), Bolivia and Paraguay (to the north); Brazil (to the northeast), Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean (to the east) and the Drake Passage (to the south).

 

 

Note: The Drake Passage is a narrow body of water between Antarctica and South America. It connects Atlantic Ocean and Pacific ocean.

 

  • Its geography is dominated by :
    • Andes mountain range in the west, forming boundary between Chile and Argentina.
    • Gran Chaco lowlands in the north (famous for Quebrancho tree)
    • Pampas grasslands in the centre(one of the most fertile grasslands of the world: famous for Wheat, maize and linseed cultivation)
    • Patagonia Plateau to the south.

 

Note: Trans Andean Railway line provide railway transport over the Andes,  connecting Chile and Argentina.

  • Important rivers:
    • Colorado River flows in south of Argentina, generally east -southeast across the arid terrain of northern Patagonia and the southern Pampas.
    • Parana River runs through Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. It is the second longest river in South America. It drains into Rio de la Plata and Atlantic Ocean.
    • Uruguay River passes through Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. It drains into Rio de la Plata and Atlantic Ocean.

Note: Together with the Paraná River, the Uruguay forms the Río de la Plata estuary.

  • Climate:
    • Temperate climate in general
    • Temperature decreases from north to south and from east to west.
  • Vegetation: Grass is the chief vegetation of Argentina.
  • Monte Desert is a small desert above the Patagonian Plateau.

 

 

 

Section : Miscellaneous

Prelims Program: Indus River System

Details :

Why it is important?

  • In view of the Pulwama attack, India is weighing its options for retaliation against Pakistan, who sponsored the attack.Out of many options, one big move that India can take is to abrogate the Indus Waters Treaty (which deals with river Indus and its five tributaries).

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Indus River System

  • It is one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent.
  • Origin: The Indus River originates near the Mansarovar Lake in the Tibetan plateau, on the northern slopes of the Kailash Mountain Range.
  • Length of the river: 3200 kilometer (2000 mile)
  • It passes through Ladakh district in Kashmir.
  • Subsequently, the river gets into Pakistan running across the North in a southward route down the whole span of Pakistan, to join the Arabian Sea.
  • Left- bank tributaries (joins the main river from left side): Zaskar river, Suru river, Soan river, Jhelum river, Chenab river, Ravi river, Beas river, Satluj river are its major left-bank tributaries.
  • Right- bank tributaries (joins the main river from right side): The Shyok river, Gilgit river, Hunza river, Swat river, Kunnar river, Kurram river and Kabul river are its major right-bank tributaries.
  • The name Punjab has been derived from these tributaries that collectively signify “five waters” or “land of five waters”. The five rivers or Panjnad after which Punjab is named are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and the Sutlej.

 

Five main tributaries of the Indus River:

Jhelum

  • Source: Spring at Verinag.
  • The river runs through the Wular lake and Srinagar in India, prior to moving into the Punjab province of Pakistan.
  • Important Dam: Uri dam (J&K)

Chenab

  • Source: River Chandra and river Bhaga rise on the opposite sides of the Baralacha pass and meet at Tandi (H.P) to from Chenab.
  • In Himachal Pradesh, the river is also called the Chandrabhaga.
  • It flows parallely to the Pir Panjal Range.
  • The river cuts a deep gorge near Kistwar,
  • It enters the plain area near Akhnur in Jammu and Kashmir and is subsequently connected with the Jhelum.
  • It creates the border between the Rechna (between Ravi and Chenab) and the Jech (between Jhelum and Chenab) Doabs.
  • The Chenab also meets the Ravi and the Sutlej in Pakistan.
  • Imp Dams: Baglihar Dam (J&K), Dulhasti Dam (J&K), Salal Dam (J&K)

Sutlej (Satluj)

  • Source: Rakshas Tal or Rakas Lake, which is linked to the Manasarovar Lake with a watercourse in Tibet.
  • Through Shipkila pass the river Satluj enters India from Tibet
  • It cuts a gorge in Naina Devi Dhar, where Bhakra dam has been constructed. Later it enters the Punjab plains.
  • Beas joins the Satluj at Harike and in Pakistan, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum rivers also adds their water into Satluj before it joins the Indus.
  • Imp Dams: Bhakra dam (H.P.) and Kol Dam (H.P.)

Ravi

  • Source: Kullu hills near Rotang pass
  • The river drains the area between Pir Panjal and Dhaola Dhar ranges.
  • It enters plains near Madhopur (Punjab) and later enters Pakistan.
  • Imp Dams: Ranjit Sagar Dam(Punjab), Shahpur Kandi Dam(Punjab), Bassi Dam (H.P.), Chamera Dam (H.P.)

Beas

  • Source: Bias Kund near Rohtang pass.
  • The river flows across Kulu and Manali,
  • The Beas meets the Sutlej river close to Harika, after being connected with some tributaries.
  • River Beas lies entirely within the Indian territory.
  • Imp Dams: Pong Dam (H.P.), Pandoh Dam (H.P.),

 


Important Term

Doab: The tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers

Punjab Doabs

Each of the tracts of land lying between the confluent rivers of the Punjab region of India and Pakistan has a distinct name

The names (except for ‘Sindh Sagar’) are a combination of the first letters, in the Persian alphabet, of the names of the rivers that bound the Doab. For example, Jech = ‘Je'(Jhelum) + ‘Ch'(Chenab).

 

 

Section : Miscellaneous

Why a dam in Karnataka bothers Tamil Nadu

Headline : Why a dam in Karnataka bothers Tamil Nadu

Details :

Why in news?

  • Recently, Tamil Nadu Chief Minister E K Palaniswami wrote to the Prime Minister urging him to stop the process of a feasibility study for the Mekedatu dam project in Karnataka.

 

About Mekedatu dam project

  • Being set up by the Karnataka government, the project is near Mekedatu, in Ramanagaram district, across the river Cauvery from Tamil Nadu.
  • Its proposed capacity is 48 TMC (thousand million cubic feet).
  • Its primary objective is to supply drinking water to Bengaluru and recharge the groundwater table in the region.

 

 

Background

  • The dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over the sharing of Cauvery waters is decades old.
  • For many years, both the states have been maintaining differences over the sharing of water.
  • Karnataka intends to build Mekedatu reservoir across river Cauvery near Mekedatu in Kanakapura taluk.
  • However, Tamil Nadu objected saying Karnataka had not sought prior permission for the project. Its argument was that the project would affect the flow of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu.
  • In November 2014, the Karnataka government invited expressions of interest in the Rs 6,000-crore project. In its 2015 Budget, it allocated Rs 25 crore for a detailed project report.
  • Tamil Nadu saw massive protests in 2015, including a state-wide bandh backed by political parties, farmers, transport unions, retailers and traders.
  • The T.N. Assembly also adopted a unanimous resolution urging the Centre to stop Karnataka from building the project.
  • Ahead of the 2016 Assembly polls in Tamil Nadu, delegation of Opposition leaders met the Prime Minister against Karnataka’s decision to allocate Rs 25 crore for a feasibility study.
  • From Karnataka, then Chief Minister Siddaramaiah led an all-party delegation to the Prime Minister seeking the Centre’s cooperation in going ahead.
  • The study has been cleared by the Central Water Commission (CWC), which has also asked for a detailed project report.
  • The process cleared by the CWC needs further clearance from the Cauvery Water Management Authority (CWMA) too.

 

Note

  • The CWC clearance is for a report subject to certain conditions, which include the concerns raised by the Tamil Nadu government.
  • The detailed report has to consider the views of the co-basin states as well.

 

Why Tamil Nadu is opposing the project?

  • Its main argument is that the project violates the final award of the Cauvery River Water Tribunal, and that the construction of the two reservoirs would result in impounding of the flows in the intermediate catchment below the Krishnaraja Sagar and Kabini reservoirs, and Billigundulu in the common border of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

 

Arguments given by Karnataka government

  • According to Karnataka, project will not come in the way of releasing the stipulated quantum of water to Tamil Nadu, nor will it be used for irrigation purposes.

 

 

Section : Polity & Governance

Tropical Evergreen Forests Conditions for growth:

Tropical Evergreen Forests Conditions for growth:

Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen Forests are found mainly in the areas where the annual rainfall is more than 250 cm, with a short dry season. The average annual temperature should be above 22 °C.

Characteristics: Lofty, very dense, multi-layered forest with mesophytic evergreen, 45m or more in height, with large number of species, numerous epiphytes, and few climbers; Due to dense growth of trees, the sunlight cannot reach the ground. Thus, the undergrowth mainly consists of canes, bamboos, ferns, climbers, etc.

Location: The true evergreen forests are mostly found along the western slopes of Western Ghats, in the hills of north-eastern states and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Trees: Important trees of these forests are rosewood, ebony, mahogany, rubber, cinchona, bamboo, coconut, palms, canes, lianas, etc.

Utility: Not commercially exploitable. However, the timber from the tropical evergreen and semi- evergreen a forest is hard, durable, fine-grained and of high economic value.