Urbanisation key to driving growth engines Editorial 3rd Aug’19 FinancialExpress

Headline : Urbanisation key to driving growth engines Editorial 3rd Aug’19 FinancialExpress

Details :

Development and urbanisation:

  • Development and urbanisation are two sides of the same coin.
  • No society in recent history remained agrarian while adequately providing for its population.
  • Urbanisation aggregates human activity—aggregation leads to specialisation, specialisation to increased productivity. This enables greater availability of goods, delivery of services, increased wages, and job opportunities.
  • Urban areas are engines of growth in any modern economy.

Example of China:

  • China is a shining example of how urbanisation drives economic growth.
  • China rapidly urbanised from 26.4% in 1990 to 59.2% today, with the impact of dramatically improved quality of life and life expectancy.
  • This also has an effect on China’s specialised workforce and productivity improvements—making China a Top 2 economy with nominal GDP of $14.1 trillion.
  • In contrast, India is at $2.7 trillion, moving towards the target of $5 trillion by 2025.

 

 

India lagging the world in urbanisation:

  • The world, on average, is at 55.3% urbanisation, whereas India lags at 34% (see graphic).
  • India has been slow to urbanise because of the fixation on being a village-based society.

Leads to inequity:

  • Most planners still look to Gandhiji’s sentiments from 1947 on this topic—‘The future of India lies in its villages’.
  • Over the last 5 decades, complexity has increased, people’s economic needs and aspirations have grown, and it is impossible to supply adequate resources to India’s six lakh villages.
  • Keeping India’s population in villages while being unable to meet their economic needs has resulted in high inequity.

 

Rural areas with agriculture dependency can only see little progress:

  • Rural employment is mostly in agriculture. 42.7% of India’s workforce in 2016-17 was engaged in the agriculture sector, seeing only a 3.4% growth rate and contributing only 17.3% to the GDP.
  • Meanwhile, 57.3% of the workforce was engaged in industry and services, growing at 5.5% and 7.6%, respectively.
  • The income differential is very high, with the average wages of dependents on agriculture to industry to services being in the ratio 1:3:4 .
  • Left unaddressed, this large group of agricultural dependents will always be limited to a sub-aspirational existence—with increasing distress and perpetual dependence on subsidies from the government.

Leading to urban migration:

  • Lack of opportunities is also accelerating large-scale internal migration towards India’s few urban growth engines—such as Mumbai, Bengaluru, Delhi, Hyderabad, and others.
  • 2011 Census indicates 43,324 uninhabited villages, presumably abandoned due to migration.

But our current urban areas can mostly only accommodate contract labour:

  • Employment is unable to keep up with the inflow.
  • Due to high costs, it is uncompetitive to set up industries in cities.
  • Without industries to absorb the incoming rural population, they are mostly making low wages as contract labour.
  • They can’t keep up with living costs—resulting in a growing urban population with unfavourable living conditions.

 

Indian urbanisation skewed towards just a few cities and towns:

  • The 2011 census indicates there are 7,933 towns/cities housing 31.16% of the population, with an average population of 47,536.
  • Of these, 465 towns have a population over one lakh and 53 cities, over ten lakh.
  • This means the remaining 7,468 towns must have significantly lesser populations than the 47,536 average.
  • The upcoming 2021 census will inform us of the current situation.

Deficit infra in these urban areas:

  • Large cities are reeling under the strain of overpopulation, with problems like inadequate infrastructure and rocketing living costs.
  • Because of the policymakers’ focus on villages, cities aren’t allocated enough to develop infrastructure to handle their rapidly expanding populations.

 

Need a systemic plan for urban migration:

  • A compelling solution to this unstable situation is the systematic shift of people from rural to urban areas.
  • Census data must be used to suitably identify 4,000-5,000 smaller towns all over India and develop them to absorb the rural-to-urban shift sustainably.
  • GoI’s Smart Cities initiative has identified 100 cities so far, focusing on roads, solar, water, and control centres.

While expanding to 5,000 towns, certain critical aspects must be incorporated:

  1. Infrastructure and connectivity:
  • From the planning stage, it is essential to prioritise providing infrastructure like roads and airport access, internet connectivity, and other amenities.
  • Not only is state-of-the-art infrastructure crucial for quality of life, it also provides the logistical backbone for a productive industrial environment.
  • Moreover, commissioning large-scale infrastructure development will also boost the construction sector—another means of mass employment.
  • We need strategic investments from both the central and state governments in these towns for parallelised infrastructure development.
  1. Labour-intensive industry (LII) clusters:
  • Creating many LIIs in and around the 5,000 towns is the best way to provide gainful employment to the transitioning population.
  • By focusing on the right type of industries—garments, fabrication, electronics assembly, automobiles, so on—this move will also boost India’s export capabilities.
  • With focused skilling programs, LIIs will offer excellent income opportunities to the incoming population.
  • Even a lower wage than cities will go a long way towards quality of life, especially since living costs are lower in towns.
  • Women, who cannot afford to move long distance from home, can also now find employment near their villages and towns, commute and earn a living.
  • Governments, apart from focusing investment here, must also provide incentives for the private sector to create LIIs.
  1. New sustainable technologies:
  • While urbanisation improves delivery of services, it poses several challenges like congestion, restricted mobility, high waste production, and pollution.
  • India must invest in understanding state-of-the-art technologies and implement them.
  • The newly developed towns will have the advantage of getting sustainable infrastructure integrated from the planning stage itself, including:
    • Renewables like solar panels and wind turbines
    • Planned tree cover to offset urban spread
    • Water treatment facilities based on phytoremediation and other plant-based technologies
    • Integrated recycling
    • EV infrastructure
    • Public transportation with last-mile connectivity
  • Older cities will need careful planning to incorporate new technologies into unwieldy city plans.
  1. Planning for capacity:
  • Indian policymaking has a tiresome tradition of planning projects based on latest available data—usually outdated—like the previous census.
  • By the time projects are completed 5-10 years later, they are operationally overloaded.
  • Instead, it is necessary to plan projects for sewage treatment, airports, roads, water supply, and so on with at least a 20-30-year forecast with provisions for future expansion.
  • Again, China paves the way—many major airports have received the go-ahead to build a third runway and increase seating capacity by forecasting the demand to 2030.

 

Conclusion:

  • Rapid urbanisation is essential to sustain India’s impressive 10-year growth trajectory and meet PM Modi’s 2025 economic target of $5 trillion.
  • The proposed network of small towns and industry clusters can become India’s engine of growth and provide jobs at scale, thus improving overall economic prosperity.
  • Sustainable urbanisation can be the force multiplier to mobilise India’s potential.

 

Importance:

GS Paper III: Economy

Section : Editorial Analysis

Important Terms – Current Affairs

Mallakhamb

It is a traditional Indian sport in which a gymnast performs feats and poses in concert with a vertical wooden pole or rope. Mallakhamb originated in Maharastra, India, during the 12th century, as a form of training for wrestlers. Mallakhamba derives from the terms malla which denotes a wrestler and khamba which means a pole. Mallakhamba can therefore be translated to English as “pole gymnastics”. In 2013, the Indian state of Madhya Pradeshdeclared mallakhamba as the state sport.

Palar River

Palar is a river of southern India. It rises in Nandi Hills, India in Kolar district of Karnataka state and flows 93 kilometres (58 mi) in Karnataka, 33 kilometres (21 mi) in Andhra Pradesh and 222 kilometres (138 mi) in Tamil Nadu before its confluence into the Bay of Bengal. Tamil Nadu government has approached the Supreme Court seeking a permanent injunction against the newly bifurcated Andhra Pradesh from building new check dams and diversion structures meant to draw precious drinking water away from the parched areas of Tamil Nadu.Before reaching Tamil Nadu, the river flows for 33 km in Andhra Pradesh.

Non-lapsable Central Pool of Resources

It is a scheme is to ensure speedy development of infrastructure in the North Eastern Region by increasing the flow of budgetary financing for new infrastructure projects/schemes in the Region. Both physical and social infrastructure sectors such as Irrigation and Flood Control, Power, Roads and Bridges, Education, Health, Water Supply and Sanitation – are considered for providing support under the Central Pool, with projects in physical infrastructure sector receiving priority. Funds from the Central Pool can be released for State sector as well as Central sector projects/schemes.The idea is that the centrally allotted resources do not lapse with the end of the financial year and go back to the Finance Ministry.

Atal Pension Yojana
Atal Pension Yojana is a government-backed pension scheme in India targeted at the unorganised sector. Under Atal Pension Yojana, for every contribution made to the pension fund, Central Government would also co-contribute 50% of the total contribution or Rs.1,000 (US$15) per annum, whichever is lower, to each eligible subscriber account, for a period of 5 years. The minimum age of joining APY is 18 years and maximum age is 40 years. The age of exit and start of pension would be 60 years. Therefore, minimum period of contribution by the subscriber under APY would be 20 years or more.

Hyperloop

Hyperloop is a proposed mode of passenger and freight transportation that would propel a pod-like vehicle levitating through a tube-like track at more than the speed of a jet-propelled airplane.The system could be the future of transport — travelling from New Delhi to Mumbai in 70 minutes , or three times faster than a commercial flight. Hyperloop will glide silently for miles at speeds of up to 620 mph (1,000 km/h) with no turbulence. Hyperloop One plans to use magnetic levitation in low-pressure tubes to transport people and goods. Hyperloop One, which builds pods or capsules and tracks based on Tesla CEO Elon Musk’s 2013 concept, has been in talks with the Indian government to develop the technology in the country. It is fuel-efficient and sustainable. The cost of laying lines would be high, though anti-pollution gains from the change should make up for the initial expenses. Also, 3D printing can help speed up the track-laying process to 100km a year. Andhra Pradesh has shown interest in setting up a test track of 30km.The Jharkhand government is interested in developing a fast-track route connecting the state’s industrial corridor — Ranchi, Dhanbad, Bokaro and Jamshedpur. Hyperloop One will help accelerate India’s growth towards building substantial infrastructure that is financially and environmentally sustainable. Experts claim that this new form of transformative transportation that is two to three times faster than the fastest high-speed rail, on-demand versus scheduled, environmental friendly with no direct emissions, and is less expensive than current high speed rail technology. Niti Aayog is involved in the talks for the project.

Rivers and their tributaries:-

Rivers and their tributaries:-

1)Tributaries of Ganga:
1. Gomti 2. Ghaghra 3. Gandak 4. Kosi 5. Yamuna 6. Son 7. Hoogly

2)Tributaries of Yamuna:
1. Chambal 2. Sindh 3. Betwa 4. Ken 5. Tons 6. Hindon

3)Tributaries of Godavari:
1. Indravati 2. Manjira 3. Bindusara 4. Sarbari 5. Penganga 6.Pranahita

4)Tributaries of Krishna:
1. Tungabhadra 2. Ghataprabha 3. Malaprabha 4. Bhima 5. Vedavati 6. Koyna

5)Tributaries of Cauvery:
1. Kabini 2. Hemavathi 3. Simsha 4. Arkavati 5. Bhavani

6)Tributaries of Narmada:
1. Amaravati 2. Bhukhi 3. Tawa 4. Banger

7)Tributaries of Indus:
1. Sutlej 2. Dras 3. Zanskar 4. Shyok 5.Gilgit 6. Suru

8)Tributaries of Brahmaputra:
1. Dibang 2. Lohit 3. Jia Bhoreli (Kameng) 4. Dikhow 5. Subansiri 6. Manas

9)Tributaries of Damodar:
1. Barakar 2. Konar

10)Tributaries of Ravi:
1. Budhil 2. Nai or Dhona 3. Seul 4. Ujh

11)Tributaries of Mahanadi:
1. Seonath 2. Hasdeo 3. Jonk 4. Mand 5. Ib 6. Ong 7. Tel

National Mineral Policy 2019

National Mineral Policy 2019
National Mineral Policy 2019 replaces the extant National Mineral Policy 2008.
Objective :
The aim of the policy is to have a more effective, meaningful and implementable policy that brings in further transparency, better regulation and enforcement, balanced social and economic growth as well as sustainable mining practices.
Benefits:
Bringing about more effective regulation to the sector and more sustainable approach while addressing the issues of those affected by mining.
Provisions which will give boost to mining sector :
Introduction of Right of First Refusal for the reconnaissance permit (RP) and prospecting license (PL) holders,
Encouraging the private sector to take up exploration,
Auctioning in virgin areas on revenue share basis,
Encouragement of merger and acquisition of mining entities and
Transfer of mining leases and creation of dedicated mineral corridors to boost private sector mining areas.
The policy proposes to grant status of industry to mining activity, it will boost financing of mining for private sector and for acquisitions of mineral assets in other countries by private sector.
Long term import export policy for mineral will help private sector in better planning and stability in business.
The Policy also mentions rationalize reserved areas given to PSUs and putting these areas to auction, will give more opportunity to private sector for participation.
The Policy also mentions to make efforts to harmonize taxes, levies & royalty with world benchmarks to help private sector.
Other Important Features:
Changes introduced in the new policy include focus on Make-in-India initiative and gender sensitivity in terms of the vision.
It also introduces the concept of inter-generational equity that deals with the well-being not only of the present generation but also of the generations to come.
It also proposes to constitute an inter-ministerial body to institutionalise the mechanism for ensuring sustainable development in mining
The policy proposes utilization of the district mineral fund for equitable development of project affected persons and areas

Geography Concepts

El Nino :-

El- Nino is Spanish word for male child ( Christ Child)

El Nino refers to two things:-
1. ceasing of upwelling off west coast of South America (Eastern Pacific Ocean)

2. appearance of warmer waters than average on the surface of ocean off the west coast of South America.

Statistically, El-nino has been found have a negative correlation with India’s summer monsoon rains.

La- Nina:-
Spanish word for Girl Child and refers to the reinforce or augmented or strengthened normal situation in the Eastern Pacific Ocean
Statistically, La- Nina has been found to have positive correlation with India’s summer monsoon rains.

Walker Cell:-
Term walker cell in general refers to prominent east west pressure cell of atmospheric circulation ( especially in tropical areas)

Southern Oscillation:-
It’s given by Sir Gilbert Walker
It refers to sea saw arrangement of atmospheric pressure conditions between Pacific and Indian Ocean.

Southern Oscillation Index :-
(Tahiti’s Atmospheric pressure ) – (Darwin’s atmospheric pressure)

Landform term refers to the earth’s surface configuration e.g Hill, Valley, Plateau, Plain etc…
A given landscape in nature represents stage of external fight between endogenic and exogenic process.

Sun is primary source of energy for exogenic processes.
It’s generally believed that radiative disintegration of element is primary source of energy for endogenic processes.

Endogenic and exogenic processes are collectively referred as geomorphic processes.

Geography Concepts

Doldrums:-
At sea, ITCZ area is called doldrums because sailors in olden days used to get becalmed here.
It’s the region of weak winds (small pressure gradients), High Humidity and High Temperatures occuring heat near equator.

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Horse Latitude:-
In olden days, Zones at about 30 N/S Degree were known as Horse latitude.
When ships were becalmed, horses were thrown to reduce the load.
Here, the air is comparatively dry and winds are calm and light, because of small pressure gradient force.
It’s the region of descending air currents or wind divergent ie. Anti-Cyclonic condition.

Trade Winds:-
Trade winds are most regular of all the planetary winds and in general they blow with great force and in constant direction.

Since trade winds blow from the subtropical latitudes to the warmer equatorial latitudes, they have great capacity of holding moisture.

In their passage across oceans, they gather more moisture and bring heavy rainfall to the east coast of continents.

As their offshore on the west coast, these regions suffer from great aridity and form hot deserts of the world.
E.g. Sahara, Kalahari, Atacama, Great Australian deserts.

Outback:-
Interior area of Australia
The term outback in Australia refers to dry interior region.
Term outback implies “Never Never” ( Never Never go there)

Westerlies:-
Westerlies are much less ( constant and persistent) than trade winds.

Seismic Gap:-
It’s the earthquake prone area where occurs a gap in the occurrence record of major earthquakes.
This means, that statistically, major earthquake is due ie, much more time had elapsed since the last major earthquake than the average time gap between two major earthquake as per the historical occurances.

Liquefaction:-
Earthquake waves gets significantly amplified when they passed through soft grounded ( water saturated alluvial deposits).
Liquefaction is sudden loss of strength of water saturated soils resulting from shaking during an earthquake.
It can cause large ground cracks to open, shaking can cause soils to consolidate and thus to occupy a smaller volume.
During shaking of an earthquake, the water saturated material may result in subsidence, fracturing and horizontal sliding of the ground surface.

Culture:- Brief for Prelims

Culture:-

  • Ugadi is celebrated as New Year’s Day in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The name Ugadi is derived from the name “Yuga Adi”, which means ‘the beginning of a new age’. It is celebrated on the first day of the Hindu month Chaitra, which marks the onset of spring.
  • The festival of Losar marks the beginning of New Year in Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir. Losar is Tibetan word for ‘new year’.
  • Gudi Padwa is celebrated as New Year’s Day in Maharashtra. It is celebrated on the same day as Ugadi i.e., the first day of the month Chaitra. Lord Brahma is worshipped on this day and the gudi, Brahma’s flag (also called Brahmadhvaj), is hoisted in every house as a symbolic representation of Rama’s victory over Ravana.
  • Vishu is celebrated as New Year’s Day in Kerala. It is celebrated on the first day of the Malayalam month of Medam (mid-April on the Gregorian calendar). Offerings to the divine called Vishukanni are neatly arranged on the eve of the festival and consist of rice, linen, cucumber, betel leaves, holy texts, coins and yellow flowers called konna (Cassia fistula). It is considered auspicious to see the Vishukanni first thing in the morning. On this day, people read the Ramayana and go to temples, Hindu places of worship. Children burst crackers, people wear new clothes and prepare special dishes and the elders of the house give out money to the children, servants and tenants. The money given is called Vishukaineetam

A Rare Opportunity Editorial 11th Apr’19 IndianExpress

Headline : A Rare Opportunity Editorial 11th Apr’19 IndianExpress 

Details : 

Rare diseases:

  • A rare disease affects a small percentage of people.
  • Most rare diseases are chronic and severe, leading to death or disability.

Problems in diagnosis, understanding and treatment:

  • Since these diseases are not found commonly, doctors are typically unaware about them and therefore either misdiagnose or do not diagnose them.
  • This further decreases recorded incidence of the disease, which in turn diminishes interest in understanding the disease and finding treatments for it.

Needs support of government:

  • The issues related to rare diseases can only be overcome by strong support from the government.

National Policy for the Treatment of Rare Diseases suspended in 2018:

  • However, in 2018, the Union government suspended the National Policy for the Treatment of Rare Diseases.
  • This came as a shock to those patients who were relying on the money allotted through the policy for life-saving treatments.
  • The Centre said that the current policy for rare diseases needed to be reframed due to challenges in implementation and costs.
  • The Union Health Ministry termed the policy “untenable” as the implementation of the policy was moved out of the Public Health Division to the National Health Mission (NHM).

Low public health expenditure necessitated this decision:

  • India’s meagre 1.15 per cent of GDP allocation to healthcare means government has to make a decision of “balancing” disease incidence.
  • In this, rare diseases lose out due to the high cost of treating them.

But patients with rare disease should not be discriminated against due to costs:

  • A utilitarian calculation is not the right basis for public policy because it perpetuates marginalisation and subverts the state’s duty to treat its citizens equally.
  • The Delhi High Court recognised the rights of rare disease patients, and said that low disease incidence cannot be the state’s basis for denying someone the right to life enshrined under Article 21 of the Constitution.

Need a new rare disease policy:

  • The Delhi HC has also demanded that the government promptly frame a new rare disease policy that incorporates global best practices.
  • To respect the HC’s directions, a new policy must be founded on non-discriminatory ideals.
  • Policymakers will have to address fiscal constraints without devaluing lives of patients with rare diseases.

The new policy should be different from the earlier policy:

  • The government should create a new policy that is based on different fundamentals.
    • Attention should be on all rare diseases: The earlier policy had a narrow focus on allocating funds to treat a select few rare diseases that could be treated, while it excluded untreatable diseases. This is problematic as only 5 per cent of all rare diseases are treatable, and thus effectively excludes 95 per cent of rare diseases from its purview. The new policy should deal with this.
    • Greater resources: A new and inclusive rare disease policy should allocate substantial resources to research for the development of new platform therapies that could commonly treat different rare diseases, while simultaneously bringing down the costs of current treatments.
    • More research: More research will also facilitate greater interest in rare diseases in the medical community, increasing rates of diagnosis and improving medical care. Increased focus on research could help develop cheaper treatments.
  • Take care of cost of treatment: Giving incentives to pharmaceutical companies to develop treatments for rare diseases has resulted in discovery of treatments but their cost is prohibitively high. In India, where most patients are un-insured and rare diseases fall outside the insurance system, this increases patient dependence on government financing. Ways must be found to incentivize discovery of new treatments while keeping treatment costs affordable.

Conclusion:

  • Low incidence makes rare diseases “unprofitable” and companies are reluctant to invest in them.
  • The government must not abandon the rare disease community to the market mechanism

Languages and civilisation Editorial 5th Apr’19 IndianExpress

Headline : Languages and civilisation Editorial 5th Apr’19 IndianExpress 

Details : 

Importance of language:

  • Language is a tool for intellectual and emotional expression.
  • Language is a vehicle for the transmission of culture, scientific knowledge and a worldview across generations.
  • It is the vital, unseen thread that links the past with the present.
  • The great Indian poet Acharya Dandi had said that if the light of language does not exist, we will be groping in a dark world.

Indian literary tradition:

  • There is a rich literary tradition in many languages, especially the ones recognised as classical languages by the Government of India.
  • Modern Indian languages have ancient roots and are derived in some way from the classical languages.

Great Sanskrit literary heritage in India: 

  • Sanskrit, of course, is one of the oldest Indo-European languages, dating back to the second millennium BC.
  • The manuscripts still in existence in Sanskrit number over 30 million, one hundred times those in Greek and Latin combined, constituting the largest cultural heritage that any civilisation has produced before the invention of the printing press.
  • Since studying the classical languages and literature would provide access to authentic sources of history, the National Mission for Manuscripts was set up in 2003.
  • Preservation of ancient texts is only the first step. We need to encourage scholars to do research using these primary sources and unearth new nuggets of knowledge.
  • It is important to study ancient texts and propagate them among modern audiences.

Classical languages of India:

  • Some languages have been given classical language status because of their ancient literary heritage.
  • For instance, Tamil literature dates back to 500 BC, Telugu to 400 BC, Kannada to 450 BC, Malayalam to 1198 AD and Odia to 800 AD.
  • Each of these languages has a rich treasure house of literature, examples include:
    • Sangam literature and Tholkappiyum in Tamil
    • Kavitrayam’s Andhra Mahabharatam in Telugu
    • Ramacharitham of Cheeraman in Malayalam
    • Kavirajamarga of Amoghavarsha in Kannada
    • Kharavela’s inscriptions in Odia
  • For each of the populations speaking these languages, their literature is a matter of pride and distinct identity and the language is a goddess to be revered. There are songs in praise of these languages in Telugu, Kannada and Tamil.

Honouring those working on classical languages:

  • Recently, President’s award was given to scholars of Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit, Arabic, Persian, Telugu, Kannada, Odia and Malayalam for their service in the preservation and development of classical languages.
  • It shows nation’s appreciation and recognition to renowned scholars who are keeping alive the traditional knowledge and acting as the intellectual bridge between the past and the present.

Falling linguistic diversity of India harms our cultural richness:

  • India is a multilingual country where more than 19,500 languages or dialects are spoken.
  • However, studies by experts estimate that almost 600 languages are on the verge of extinction and that more than 250 languages have disappeared in the past 60 years.  
  • Almost 97 per cent of the population speaks one of the 22 scheduled languages.
  • When a language dies, an entire culture dies.

Preserving and developing India’s linguistic heritage: 

  • Our languages are a crucial part of our history, our culture and our evolution as a society.
  • It is important to protect and conserve our linguistic heritage.
  • Protecting our cultural heritage, including languages, is our constitutionally-mandated duty.

Leveraging technology:

  • The resources required to develop language technology and artificial intelligence-based tools are inadequate or unavailable for many Indian languages.
  • We must harness the power of technology to preserve and promote our languages and culture.

Governmental efforts:

  • The Government of India launched the Linguistic Data Consortium for Indian Languages (LDC-IL) in 2008 and has been preparing high-quality linguistic resources over the last 11 years in all the scheduled languages of India.
  • The Data Distribution Portal is also being launched, where more and varied datasets will be added using several types of AI-based technologies such as automatic dictation, speech recognition, language understanding, machine translation, grammar and spell check.
  • The Central Institute of Indian Languages has been doing commendable work to provide linguistic resources in Indian languages.

A multi-pronged approach:

  • Language preservation and development needs a multi-pronged approach.
    • Education: It should begin at the primary school level and be continued to higher levels of education. Functional literacy in at least one language should be ensured.
    • Usage at homes: More and more people should start using their native languages at home, in the community, in meetings and in administration.
    • Encouraging literature: More people should write poetry, stories, novels and dramas in these languages. We must accord a sense of dignity and a sense of pride to those who speak, write and communicate in these languages.
    • Publications: We must encourage Indian language publications, journals and children’s books.
    • Dialects and folk literature must be given adequate focus.

Conclusion:

  • Language promotion should be an integral part of good governance.
  • Language should become a catalyst for inclusive development.
  • By harnessing technology, the mission of “digital India” can be a mission for a literate India and a mission for an inclusive knowledge society.

Importance:

GS Paper I: Society

Section : Editorial Analysis

Everything about Ramappa Temple and World heritage site

Ramappa Temple for world heritage site

Details :

The news

  • Telangana is expected to get its first site, the Ramappa Temple at Palampet, included in UNESCO World Heritage Site in the 43rd session of the World Heritage Committee.

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Background

  • India has already got 37 sites inscribed in the World Heritage List.
  • There are total 29 cultural sites, 7 Natural sites and 1 mixed site of India in the World Heritage list.
  • Moreover, around 42 sites from India including the Qutb Shahi monuments of Hyderabad, Golconda Fort, and Charminar from Telangana are on the tentative list of World Heritage Sites.
  • The Ramappa Temple was proposed to be included as part of ‘The Glorious Kakatiya Temples and Gateways’ along with the Thousand Pillar Temple, Swayambhu Temple and Keerti Thoranas of Warangal Fort since 2014.
  • Now, the temple is in the reckoning as a standalone world heritage site.

 

 

News Summary

  • The 43rd session of the World Heritage Committee will be held in Baku, Azerbaijan.
  • The committee will decide on the inclusions of World heritage sites for 2019 in that session.
  • It is expected that the Ramappa Temple at Palampet near Warangal, Telangana could be selected for inclusion in the list of World heritage sites.

 

Significance of the inclusion

  • First in Telangana: It would be Telangana’s first UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Prestige/Identity: The sites inscribed on the World Heritage List gains the prestige which often helps raise awareness among citizens and governments for heritage preservation.
  • Protection and conservation: Greater awareness leads to a general rise in the level of the protection and conservation given to heritage properties.
  • Financial Assistance: A country may also receive financial assistance and expert advice from the World Heritage Committee to support activities for the preservation of its sites.
  • Tourism: Once listed, it brings international attention to the site and hence, ensures economic benefits to the nation.
  • Protection during wartime: The site becomes protected under Geneva Convention against destruction or misuse during war.

 

About the Temple

  • Rudreswara (Ramappa) temple at Palampet near Warangal, got its name Ramappa because of its chief sculptor Ramappa.
  • It’s probably the only temple in the country to be known by the name of its sculptor.
  • The medieval Deccan Ramappa Temple which dates back to 1213 AD, was built by the patronage of the Kakatiya ruler Kakati Ganapathi Deva under the authority of his Chief Commander Rudra Samani.
  • Features of the temple
    • The Ramappa temple is a Shivalaya, crowned with a shikharam and surrounded by pradakshinapatha sits a 6 feet high star shaped platform.
    • The temple is built on a valley and it rests on bricks that are scientifically shown to float in water.
    • It has intricate carvings adorning the walls, pillars and ceilings unique to the time of Kakatiyan sculptors and empire.
    • The hall in front of the sanctum has numerous carved pillars that have been positioned to create an effect that combines light and space in a unique way.
    • The sculptural work of dance postures in the temple appear like a record of dances of the region in stone and was of great inspiration for the famous work ‘NrityaRatnavali’, by Jayapa Senani.
    • The postures pertaining to BharataNatya, Shrunga, Bharunga, Rathi, Perini Nritya , are engraved on the pillars.
    • The ‘Nagini’ and other eleven devanarthakis arranged as supporting beams on both sides of each entrance define the highly refined aesthetic sense of Kakatiya
    • The desi (local) varieties of dances such as Perini, Prenkana, SuddaNartana, Dandarasak, Sivapriya, Chindu and Kolata are some dance forms in the sculptural art of the temple.
  • This temple is described as the “brightest star in the galaxy of medieval temples of the Deccan” a repository of Kakatiyan creative genius.
  • The Ramappa temple is a best example of the love for art, music and dance as patronized by Kakatiyas.

 

 

About UNESCO World Heritage site

  • A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
  • To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area.
  • It may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, and serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet.
Section : History & Culture