- Both the countries have agreed to enhance exchanges between their forces with more bilateral exercises and exchanges in the field of technology at a time when India wants to increase domestic defence production.
- The Armies of both nations will hold a joint exercise on anti-terrorism in 2018 for the first time.
- The talks are on to include bilateral training between the two navies and Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) training to expand cooperation.
- Both the countries seek to strengthen cooperation between their Air Forces.
Cooperation in Defence and technology
- There will be collaboration between Acquisition, Technology and Logistic Agency (ATLA) and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for research in the areas of Unmanned Ground Vehicles and Robotics.
- India-US-Japan successfully undertook this trilateral naval exercise in the Bay of Bengal. This is necessary to maintain freedom of navigation in the South China sea to counter Chinese hegemony.
- Japan has invited India to participate in a Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) exercise held by Japan Ground Self Defence Force as an observer.
- 2+2 dialogue between the Foreign Ministries and Defence ministries of both the nations will take place in 2018.
- Japan funds many road projects in the Northeast India to help bridge the gap between the strategically important Northeastern states. This would provide trade routes in the region and give it economic-push.
- Bullet train: Japan is helping India in building bullet trains. It has invested $12 billion for India’s first bullet train from Ahmedabad to Mumbai.
Cooperation in Africa:
- Japan and its banks are cooperating with India for investment in Africa. This is very important so as to counter China’s One Belt One Road (OBOR).
How will NSG membership help India?
Clean energy push:
- India is a growing country with massive energy needs.
- It has set for itself an ambitious goal of sourcing 40% of its power from non-fossil sources and here is where nuclear energy comes into play.
- India will need latest technology and NSG membership will come in handy.
- Though it got a one-time NSG waiver in 2008, the country needs constant access to global markets and a stable trading framework.
- Being a member of the NSG will also mean that India will have far greater access to uranium than it does currently under its 2008 agreement with the US. For example, Namibia is the fourth-largest producer of uranium and it agreed to sell the nuclear fuel to India in 2009.
- However, that hasn’t happened, as Namibia has since cited a 2009 African version of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Pelindaba Treaty, which essentially controls the supply of uranium from Africa to the rest of the world.
- If India joins the NSG, such reservations from Namibia are expected to melt away.
It helps domestic firms:
- A place on the nuclear trading table will help Indian companies such as the Walchandnar Industries Limited (WIL) and L&T to expand business.
- India has a robust indigenous nuclear industry that worked mostly in isolation as international sanctions were slapped every time a nuclear test was conducted.
- An NSG membership will make these companies comply with international norms and make it easier for them to ply their trade abroad.
Make in India:
- New Delhi and Moscow have announced a plan to build reactors in India to sell them to other countries, a move expected to give a push to the Modi government’s Make in India initiative.
- It will not only generate jobs but also help in technology development.
- As an NSG member, India will be better placed to implement the initiative.
End of the nuclear winter:
- One of the objectives of the 2008 nuclear deal was that the US would help India get into export-control regimes such as the NSG, the MTCR (missile technology control regime), Australia Group and Wassenar Arrangement.
- As a member of these groupings, India will have access to defence, space and nuclear technologies.
- The MTCR is done, of the remaining, the NSG is most crucial.
- Admission to the MTCR will open the way for India to buy high-end missile technology and surveillance drones such as Predator.
10 Commitments and Suggestions:
1. Creating Safer World:
- It can be achieved by organised and coordinated action on issues like counter-terrorism, cyber security and disaster management.
2. Creating Greener World:
- It can be achieved by taking concerted action on countering climate change. For e.g initiatives like International Solar Alliance.
3. Creating Enabled World:
- It can be achieved by sharing and deploying suitable technologies to enhance efficiency, economy and effectiveness.
4. Creating Inclusive World
- It can be achieved by mainstreaming the people in the banking and financial system.
5. Creating Digital world:
- It can be achieved by bridging the digital divide within and outside the economies.
6. Creating Skilled World:
- It can be created by giving future-ready skills to millions of the youths.
7. Creating Healthier World:
- It can be created by cooperating in research and development to eradicate diseases, and enabling affordable health care for all.
8. Creating Equitable World:
- It can be achieved by providing equality of opportunity to all, particularly through gender equality.
9. Creating Connected World:
- The world can be connected by enabling the free flow of goods, persons and services.
10. Creating Harmonious World:
- The world can by harmonious by promoting ideologies, practices, and heritage that are centered on peaceful coexistence and living in harmony with nature.
Right to Freedom
Art 19(1) – Democratic rights
- Speech and expression
- Art 19(1)(a) and Art 21 – inalienable disjunct
- Express your view, right to listen, any communicable medium
- Express others view
- Right to know
- Press freedom
- Elect/reject candidate based on informed choices
- Dissent – criticize govt
- ITA 2000 – Sec 66A – chilling effect
- Defamation – criminal and civil offense
- Security of state,
- sovereignty and integrity of India
- Relations with a foreign country
- Public order
- Morality And Decency
- Contempt of court
- Corollary of 19(1)(a)
- Assemble anywhere without arms – meeting and procession
- Form association, cooperatives, union
- Not avail to military, armed forces
- Strike is illegal, but not hartal
- Whenever, wherever , however
- Settle anywhere within country
- Strengthen unity and territorial integrity and promote fraternity
- ILPS for NE states – Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland
- Property – repealed
- Practice any occupation but with qualification
- State can take over for public interest
- Complementary of Art 301 – to anyone – co operative federalism
Art 20: Conviction for offense
- Ex post facto
- No retrospective
- Only for criminal and not for civil and tax
- Double jeopardy
- Only to criminal courts and tribunals and not to civil and exe
- No punishing twice
- Cri + civil – two diff punishments
- Self incrimination
- No compulsion of self evidence to police
- Voluntary confession ok to judiciary
- Specimens can be forced – doesn’t make difference
- No lie detector, violates privacy
Art 21: Life
- Fundamental of all FR
- Live with dignity
- Principles of natural justice – basic str, eliminate arbitrariness, fairness
- Procedure established with law
- Available only against arbitrary action of exe and not legislative
- Due process of law (American const)
- Arbitrary action of both exe and legislature
- Suicide is criminal offense – decriminalized (mental health care bill)
- Die with dignity
- Euthanasia – passive and active – voluntary, involuntary, non voluntary
- Passive – prolong life
- Active – end life
- Aruna Shanbaug case vs UOI 2014
- Passive legal with court’s authority
- Active illegal
- Advance consent to practise euthanasia
Art 21A : Education
- 6 to 14yrs – free and compulsory edu by state
- Right to schooling but not RTE
- Centre State uncertain over financial responsibility
- Perf based evaluation – teachers not trained and skilled
- Auto promotion to next std
Art 22: Protection against Detention
- Know grounds
- Official record
- No suspicion detention
- Access to legal dept
- Court within 24 hrs
- Not detain any more time than sentenced
- 3 months max
- Need permission for further
- Under trials
- Fast track courts
- Grant bail if half term over already
- The program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts.
- Crediting subsidies directly into bank accounts help reduce leakages, delays, etc.
- DBT has now extended to most of the government schemes.
DBT has two components:
- Subsidy: When a government meets a part of the cost of providing a good or service to a beneficiary.
- Income transfer: When a government provides income support to a beneficiary.
- This is a pure transfer payment unrelated to the cost of providing any good or service.
Pros and Cons of DBT
- Better targeting of the beneficiary: In case of physical delivery of subsided products there are numerous reports of leakages, diversion of supplies, black marketing etc.
- By the use of DBT there is an assured transfer of the subsidy to the beneficiary.
- Also the problems like product adulteration, delay in supplies are eliminated.
- There is no need to have an elaborate administrative apparatus maintained at huge cost to manage the rationing of subsidized commodities.
- DBT brings in transparency and efficiency, and enables beneficiaries to get their entitlements directly to them without any delay.
- Direct transfer increases the circulation of money that will help in increasing the demand in the economy. Thus, keeping the growth cycle viable.
- DBT is dependent on the banking system, which is backbone of the system.
- Hence, anyone without a bank account will not be able to avail subsidies.
- In India, we still have the rural pockets where bank facilities has not reached yet.
- Now, the government in its move to provide universal financial inclusion is taking the initiative to provide each household with at least one bank account under Jan Dhan Yojna. Linking of the two systems i.e. DBT and financial inclusion is now actively pursued.
- The Direct Benefit transfer of LPG (DBTL) scheme is PAHAL.
- Consumers who wish to join the scheme will have to either link their Aadhaar number into their bank account.
- DBTL is designed to ensure that the benefit meant for the genuine domestic customer reaches them directly and is not diverted.
Right to Freedom of religion
Art 25: P3 -Profess,Practice,Propagate
- Conscience – inner freedom
- Profess -declare openly
- Practice – rituals and use signs
- Propagate – spread but not force
- Opinion & belief – no state interference
- Conduct & practice – state can
Art 26: Religious denomination
- Est. institutions for religion and charity
- Manage its affairs
- Right to property
- Administer its property
- State can take over with compensation
Art 27: Taxation for religion
- No collecting tax to promote religion
- Fees is ok to provide service like safety
- State is neither religious nor irreligious nor anti religious but is non religious
- Sarva Dharma Sambhav
- Equidistant from all religion
- West – don’t patronize
- India – patronize without discrimination
Art 28: Religious instruction
- Religious instruction in schools
- State wholly owned – strictly no
- State administered but est. by religious denomination – permitted
- State recognized – optional
- State sponsored – optional
Right to equality
Art 14 : Law
- Equal before law
- English const
- Absence of any privileges
- Law is supreme authority – govt subjected to law
- Art 361 (exception for president and governor)
- No punishment unless law violated
- Every one equal before law without discrimination
- Law is the superior – const is superior in India
- From Rex Lex to Lex Rex
- Equal protection of law
- American const
- Equitable treatment
- reservation to push backward ppl up
- Treat likes alike, alikes not to be treated like
Art 15: Discrimination
- No discrimination on the grounds of RRSCP
- Equal access to public places
- Women and children exception – reservation for Women
- Spc provision for edu and soc backward – SC ST
- Reservation for BC – edu
- Transgender rights reserved
Art 16: Employment Opportunity
- Equal opportunity in public employment
- No discrimination on RRSCP + descents + residence
- Exception for residence and descendants discrimination in some cases
- Vertical reservation
- Max reservation to be 50%
- Additional reservation extended to women, military, sports etc..
- Horizontal reservation
- Reservation within reservation
- Reservation to be state discretion – enabling clause
- Indra Swahney VS UOI 1992
- Carry forward policy for SC ST
Art 17: Untouchability
- Renamed to Civil rights Act
- Read about SC ST atrocities act
Art 18: Titles and rewards
- Except awards and edu degrees, nothing to be displayed