It is easier to build a boy than to mend a man. Discuss this statement in the light of selecting an individual for public office. 150 words

The basis of the statement lies in two elements: firstly, that it is possible to
change behavior but very difficult to change attitudes; secondly, that as one ages,attitudes become more rigid and difficult to change. Thus, the earlier we introduce interventions to correct or improve behaviours and attitudes, the greater the chances of a meaningful impact.
With regard to selecting an individual for pubic office, this emphasizes the
importance of the recruitment and training programs. The lower the age at entry, the more the possibility that the interventions will have the desired impact since it becomes easier to training the individual, with minimal resistance.
Similarly, the recruitment policy must ensure that the selected individuals are
genuinely pubic-spirited. This would ensure that their acceptance of the
organizational ethos is greater and attitudinal resistance is minimal.

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How will NSG membership help India? 

How will NSG membership help India? 

Clean energy push:

  • India is a growing country with massive energy needs.
  • It has set for itself an ambitious goal of sourcing 40% of its power from non-fossil sources and here is where nuclear energy comes into play.
  • India will need latest technology and NSG membership will come in handy.
  • Though it got a one-time NSG waiver in 2008, the country needs constant access to global markets and a stable trading framework.
  • Being a member of the NSG will also mean that India will have far greater access to uranium than it does currently under its 2008 agreement with the US. For example, Namibia is the fourth-largest producer of uranium and it agreed to sell the nuclear fuel to India in 2009.
  • However, that hasn’t happened, as Namibia has since cited a 2009 African version of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Pelindaba Treaty, which essentially controls the supply of uranium from Africa to the rest of the world.
  • If India joins the NSG, such reservations from Namibia are expected to melt away.

It helps domestic firms:

  • A place on the nuclear trading table will help Indian companies such as the Walchandnar Industries Limited (WIL) and L&T to expand business.
  • India has a robust indigenous nuclear industry that worked mostly in isolation as international sanctions were slapped every time a nuclear test was conducted.
  • An NSG membership will make these companies comply with international norms and make it easier for them to ply their trade abroad.

Make in India:

  • New Delhi and Moscow have announced a plan to build reactors in India to sell them to other countries, a move expected to give a push to the Modi government’s Make in India initiative.
  • It will not only generate jobs but also help in technology development.
  • As an NSG member, India will be better placed to implement the initiative.

End of the nuclear winter:

  • One of the objectives of the 2008 nuclear deal was that the US would help India get into export-control regimes such as the NSG, the MTCR (missile technology control regime), Australia Group and Wassenar Arrangement.
  • As a member of these groupings, India will have access to defence, space and nuclear technologies.
  • The MTCR is done, of the remaining, the NSG is most crucial.
  • Admission to the MTCR will open the way for India to buy high-end missile technology and surveillance drones such as Predator.

10 ‘noble commitments’ for global transformation by PM Modi

10 Commitments and Suggestions:

1. Creating Safer World:

  • It can be achieved by organised and coordinated action on issues like counter-terrorism, cyber security and disaster management.

2. Creating Greener World:

  • It can be achieved by taking concerted action on countering climate change. For e.g initiatives like International Solar Alliance.

3. Creating Enabled World:

  • It can be achieved by sharing and deploying suitable technologies to enhance efficiency, economy and effectiveness.

4. Creating Inclusive World

  • It can be achieved by mainstreaming the people in the banking and financial system.

5. Creating Digital world:

  • It can be achieved by bridging the digital divide within and outside the economies.

6. Creating Skilled World:

  • It can be created by giving future-ready skills to millions of the youths.

7. Creating Healthier World:

  • It can be created by cooperating in research and development to eradicate diseases, and enabling affordable health care for all.

8. Creating Equitable World:

  • It can be achieved by providing equality of opportunity to all, particularly through gender equality.

9. Creating Connected World:

  • The world can be connected by enabling the free flow of goods, persons and services.

10. Creating Harmonious World:

  • The world can by harmonious by promoting ideologies, practices, and heritage that are centered on peaceful coexistence and living in harmony with nature.

Madhyamik and Uchchatar Shiksha Kosh (MUSK)

Madhyamik and Uchchatar Shiksha Kosh (MUSK)

  • A single non-lapsable corpus fund Madhyamik and Uchchatar Shiksha Kosh (MUSK) will work as a repository for the revenue of the Secondary and Higher Education Cess.
  • It will be inducted to help the education schemes for which demand exceeds budgetary allocations.
  • A non-lapsable reserve fund means that if the amount collected is not utilized it would be carried forward to the next financial years.
  • The HRD Ministry will be responsible for the administration and maintenance of MUSK.
  • The fund will cater the following schemes:
  1. Interest subsidy on education loans
  2. Education credit guarantee fund
  3. Scholarship schemes
  4. Girls’ education schemes
  5. Higher education funds in states.
  • MUSK is similar to Prarambhik Shiksha Kosh (PSK) which was in place to fund elementary education schemes such as Sarva Shikha Abhiyan (education for all) for which the government collects a separate 2% cess.

NATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL PRICING AUTHORITY:

NATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL PRICING AUTHORITY:

  • The National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) is a government regulatory agency that controls the prices of pharmaceutical drugs and equipments in India.
  • NPPA is an organization of the Government of India which was established to fix/ revise the prices of controlled bulk drugs and formulations and to enforce prices and availability of the medicines in the country, under the Drugs (Prices Control) Order.
  • The organization is also entrusted with the task of recovering amounts overcharged by manufacturers for the controlled drugs from the consumers.
  • It also monitors the prices of decontrolled drugs in order to keep them at reasonable levels.
  • At present the Drug Price Control Order (2013) regulates ceiling prices of 432 medicines based on “essentiality.”

Purpose and functions of a Constitution:

 • Lays out certain ideals that form the basis of the kind of country that we as citizens aspire to live in.
• Defines the nature of a country’s political system; plays a crucial role in laying out certain important guidelines that govern decision-making within these societies.
• Provides a set of basic rules that allow for minimal coordination amongst members of a society.
• Provides safeguards against the leaders who might misuse their authority—sets some limits on what a government can impose on its citizens. These limits are fundamental in the sense that government may never trespass them.
• Constitution saves us from ourselves (This may sound strange but what is meant by this is that we might at times feel strongly about an issue that might go against our larger interests and the Constitution helps us guard against this.)
• It helps to protect us against certain decisions that we might take that could have an adverse effect on the larger principles that the country believes in. Therefore, the constitution sets authoritative constraints upon what one may or may not do.
• Enables the government to fulfill the aspirations of a society and create conditions for a just society.
• Constitution expresses the fundamental identity of a people.
• Protects minorities from tyranny of the majority (i.e. from inter-community and intra-
community domination)

Khadi and Freedom movement

Khadi and Freedom movement

  • Khadi owes its revival to the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi who saw it as a tool to become self-reliant and independent.
  • Britishers bought raw materials at cheaper rate from India and sold their costly finished products in India.
  • This unfavourable balance of trade was first brought to the mainstream by Dada Bhai Nairoji.
  •  Dada Bhai Naroji put forward the theory of “drain of wealth” in his book “ Poverty and Un-british rule in India”.
  • Later, the use of swadeshi products was promoted by extremists and it became an important agenda during Bengal partition movement in 1905.
  • To put an end to the drain of wealth, the Swadeshi products were encouraged and produced.
  • Khadi was then introduced in 1920 by INC at Nagpur session as a political weapon for giving concrete expression to the Swadeshi Spirit to boycott the foreign goods.
  • During India’s freedom struggle, Gandhi encouraged handloom weaving, spinned with Charkha and promoted khadi and also used it as a medium to spread the wave of nationalism at grass root level.
  • The movement rendered an opportunity to Indians to be self-reliant on cotton and to be free from clothes produced by foreign manufacturers.
  • The first Khadi Production Centre was established at Katiawad, Gujarat.

 

Chronology of events that contributed to the development of Khadi in India

  • In the early20s and 30s, various Boards and Associaions were set up for Khadi.
  • In 1946, Govt. of Madras sought the advice of Gandhiji and set up a Department for Khadi.
  • In 1948, Govt. of India recognized the role of Rural Cottage Industries in the Industrial Policy Resolution and soon included it in the DPSP of the Constitution in Article 43.
  • These ideas were elaborated in the First five-year Plan and the policy framework for setting up of a body for Khadi.
  • In 1953, All India Khadi and Village Industries Board (AIKVIB) were set up which later became a statutory body- Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).

Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)

  • It was set up in 1957.
  • Khadi is being promoted in India by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC), Ministry of MSME, Govt. of India.
  • Since then the commission has been:
  1. Planning and executing the development.
  2. Working towards promoting research in production techniques.
  3. Supplying raw material and tools to producers.
  4. Quality control and marketing of khadi products.