Masood Azhar, Hafiz Saeed, Lakhvi, Dawood Ibrahim declared terrorists under new anti-terror law

Headline : Masood Azhar, Hafiz Saeed, Lakhvi, Dawood Ibrahim declared terrorists under new anti-terror law

Details :

The News:

  • India has declared Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) chief Hafiz Saeed, Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) chief Masood Azhar, LeT’s supreme commander of operations in Kashmir Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi and fugitive underworld don Dawood Ibrahim, all based in Pakistan, as terrorists under the amended Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act.
  • Earlier, only groups or organisations could be declared as terrorists but after the amendment, individuals could also be declared as terrorists.


In brief about the Declared Terrorists:

Masood Azhar:

  • The JeM chief was involved in attacks on the Jammu and Kashmir Assembly complex in 2001, attack on Parliament in 2001, attack on Pathankot airbase in 2016, attacks on BSF camp in Srinagar in 2017 and Pulwama attack on February 14.
  • Azhar was also designated as a global terrorist by the UN under the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1267 on May 1, 2019, and was declared as a proclaimed offender by the special judge (POTA)

Hafiz Saeed:

  • He was involved in various attacks, including Red Fort in 2000, a CRPF camp in Rampur (Uttar Pradesh), in Mumbai in 2008 in which 166 people were killed and the attack on a BSF convoy at Udhampur in Jammu and Kashmir in 2015.

Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi:

  • He was involved in Red Fort attack in 2000, Rampur CRPF camp in 2008, Mumbai in 2008 and on a BSF convoy at Udhampur in Jammu and Kashmir.

Dawood Ibrahim:

  • Dawood ran an international underworld crime syndicate and was involved in perpetrating acts of terror, promoting religious fundamentalism, terror financing, arms smuggling, circulation of counterfeit currency, money laundering, narcotics, extortion and benami real estate business in India and abroad.
  • Dawood was also involved in assassination attempts on prominent personalities to create social disharmony and terrorise common man.
  • Dawood also executed a series of bomb blasts along with his associates in Mumbai in March 1993, which resulted in deaths of 257 people and injured over 1000 others apart from the destruction of properties on a massive scale.

News Summary:

  • All the four blacklisted terror masterminds are already tagged as ‘global terrorists’ under UN Security Council Resolution 1267 and are also subjects of Interpol red corner notices.
  • In August 2019, UAPA was amended to allow the government to ban individual terrorists if it believed they are involved in terrorism.
  • Notifying the names of the Pakistan-based terror masterminds in the Fourth Schedule to UAPA brings the Indian terror blacklist in sync with the UN list of designated terrorists.
  • This also conforms to FATF standards that require all member countries to ban those designated as global terrorists.
  • The ‘individual terrorist’ tag would help Indian agencies with investigation, prosecution and trial of cases registered against the notified terrorists.

Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act, 2019

Designation as Terrorist :

The central government may designate an organisation as well as an individual (added in the recent amendment ) as a terrorist if it:

  • commits or participates in acts of terrorism,
  • prepares for terrorism,
  • promotes terrorism, or
  • is otherwise involved in terrorism. 

Approval for seizure of property by NIA:

  • An investigating officer is required to obtain the prior approval of the Director General of Police to seize properties that may be connected with terrorism.
  • If the investigation is conducted by an officer of the National Investigation Agency (NIA), the approval of the Director General of NIA would be required for seizure of such property (added in recent amendment).

Investigating Officer:

  • Investigation of cases may be conducted by:
    • Officers of the rank of Deputy Superintendent or
    • Assistant Commissioner of Police or above.
    • Inspectors of the National Investigation Agency(added in recent amendment).

NIA’s powers:

  • The NIA (which is under the control of the central government) can go to any state without taking permission from state police concerned for checking anti-terror activities.

Note: The designation of an individual as a global terrorist by the United Nations is associated with sanctions, including travel bans, freezing of assets and an embargo against procuring arms. However, the UAPA Bill does not provide any such detail.

Concerns regarding the UAPA Act:

  • The power of NIA (which is under the control of the central government) to any state without taking permission from state police concerned for checking anti-terror activities has been opposed fearing it would amount to encroaching upon the rights of the states.
  • The law it could be misused against political opponents and civil society activists who spoke against the government may be branded as “terrorists.”

Section : Defence & Security

Why the attack in Gadchiroli is significant?

Headline : Why the attack in Gadchiroli is significant?

Details :

The News

  • The Maoist attack in Maharashtra’s Gadchiroli district led to the death of 15 Police personnel.



  • This attack in Gadchiroli is another significant event in the long history of Maoist violencein Gadchiroli, where the naxal movement began in 1980.
  • This district has been the hot-bed of naxal activities in Maharashtra with the Maoist violence claiming 418 lives in the past three decades.
  • The Maharashtra government has been building a narrative of asserting control over the district after their huge success of the encounter carried out inGadchiroli in April 2018 thatleft 38 alleged Maoists dead.
  • Now, the attack in the same district must have some signals to give.


Summary of the news

  • The Maoist attack in Maharashtra’s Gadchiroli district led to the death of 15 Maharashtra Police C-60 personnel and the driver of their private vehicle.
  • The attack was carried on with IED blast.


Failures attributed to the attack

  • Failure of intelligence: The Maoists are present in the area and the police claims to have active intelligence networks but still they were unable to identify this threat, which amounts to failure of intelligence.
  • Violation of Standard Operating Procedures: IED blasts cause damage when they hit forces travelling together and that is why in Maoist areas, forces are encouraged to travel on foot or on motorcycles with a gap between two bikes but as these police personnel were travelling together in a private vehicle, is against the Standard Operating Procedures.


Why this attack is significant?

  • Selection of difficult terrain: Gadchiroli has dense forests and rivers and sparse population, this has always been a difficult terrain for security personnel to control the district and operate in.
  • Location of Gadchiroli: It is at the trijunction of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, and Telanagana, which facilitates the Maoists to cross state borders at their will, making it difficult for the state police to catch them.
  • Safe Area: Gadchiroli offers both a corridor for passage as well as a mostly safe holding area for Maoists due to lack of coordination between the connected state’s police.
  • Efforts of the state: Maharashtra’s efforts to connect to local adivasis and build local intelligence, has just helped them reduce hold of Maoists but it has not helped them tocarry out aggressive attacks.
  • Registering presence: After the April 2018 encounter, the Maoists would have felt the need to register their presence.
  • Logistics and Strategy: The comeback of Maoists after a year signals that they have now got their logistics in place and carrying out a low-cost strike with IED blast could be their strategy.
Section : Defence & Security

A-SAT tech gives India diplomatic bargaining power Editorial 28th Mar’19 LiveMint

Headline : A-SAT tech gives India diplomatic bargaining power Editorial 28th Mar’19 LiveMint

Details :

 Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile test:

  • India has successfully conducted an Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile test.
  • Conducting the test under Mission Shakti, India demonstrated the capability to destroy a satellite in the low earth orbit (LEO) at about 300 km above the earth’s surface, using an anti-satellite missile.
  • The Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) has demonstrated that we have the capability that only a few (US, Russia and China) among the best have.


  • The A-SAT technology is a combination of two technologies in the missile field:
    1. A long-range missile capability which has been demonstrated by India many times.
    2. The ballistic missile defence capability, meaning the ability to intercept a missile with another missile. This has also been demonstrated many times by India.
  • Integrating these two technologies, the A-SAT system has been created.

Made possible due to the political will of the government:

  • Over the last ten years, major building blocks were under development.
  • However, decisions like anti-satellite tests are strategic in nature, and they cannot be taken by the scientists.
  • They have to be taken by the government with strong political will, as there is fear of backlash from international powers.
  • The union government took the decision about two years ago, and after that, DRDO has been able to build the necessary technology for interception of a satellite in lower orbit.



Demonstration of technological abilities:

  • With this test, India has reached the pinnacle of missile technology to intercept a satellite that is orbiting at about 7-8 kilometres per second in a lower orbit with the precision of less than one millisecond.
  • It consists of a very agile kill vehicle with infrared seeker, excellent command control and communications network and long-range radar systems on ground, all working in unison in an automated manner to enable this interception.

Deterrence against attacks on India’s space assets:

  • Satellites form an integral part of a country’s critical infrastructure, with critical applications including navigation systems, communication networks, broadcasting, banking systems, surveillance etc.
  • Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile capability gives India the strength and sends the message of deterrence against anyone messing with our space assets.
  • On land, sea, and air, India had all the capabilities in addition to a nuclear deterrent. The new successful missile test adds deterrence in space. If tomorrow there is a war in space, this gives us the defence preparedness.

Defence against long range missiles:

  • If we can intercept a satellite, it means we can intercept any object approaching us this fast, like the intermediate-range ballistic missiles and Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
  • We can engage these weapons at altitudes of 300 kilometres above ground.

Protects India against any grouping excluding India from conducting such tests:

  • Historically, five nuclear-weapon states (NWS)—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and the United States, had decided that they can have the nuclear weapons, but others like India cannot. So they made it very very difficult for India to build nuclear weapons.
  • In the case of space, there is no such rule mechanism so far.
  • But the only countries that had Anti-Satellite Missile capabilities were the US, Russia and China, and there was a possibility that they come together and say that only they can have this capability (like in the case of nuclear weapons).
  • With India successfully conducting this test, India ensured itself a role in the future in the drafting of international law on prevention of an arms race in the space.

Adds to India’s national power:

  • With this test, India became only the fourth country in the world to demonstrate the capability to shoot down satellites in orbit.
  • It strengthens India’s position as a major space power with proven space technology.
  • The test has increased India’s bargaining power on the diplomatic front as well.


Way forward:

  • Space technologies are continuously evolving at a fast rate.
  • In the near future, we could see development of more such space technologies and Mission Shakti paves the way for demonstrations of those capabilities.
  • There are more options, in terms of anti-satellite weapons, which could be explored. For instance, jamming and laser anti-satellite weapons will be really important.



GS Paper II: Security Issues


Section : Editorial Analysis

Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and long and porous borders with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective management of India-Bangladesh border. (15 marks)

Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and long and porous borders with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective management of India-Bangladesh border. (15 marks)


  • Introduce with the India-Bangladesh border
  • Enumerate various issues along the border
  • List steps taken by Government to address them – make sure to highlight the recent CIBMS and BOLD-QIT
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

The India-Bangladesh border is India’s longest international border measuring 4,096.7 km passing through West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. The entire border consists of varied geographical features like plains, hills, riverine stretches, and forests with hardly any natural obstacles.

Various issues associated with India-Bangladesh border:

  • Illegal migration of people from Bangladesh into India, especially in Assam, West Bengal and Tripura is a perennial problem. There are around two crore illegal migrants staying in India.
  • The porous nature of the border have also made it easy for Indian Insurgent Groups (IIGs) to cross over into Bangladesh, where they have set up safe houses and training camps.
  • Organized cross-border criminal activities including trafficking of arms, humans and narcotics, counterfeiting Indian currency etc. are also quite rampant.
  • Smuggling: The border also faces the unique problem of smuggling of cattle, readymade garments and food grains.

The Indian Government has taken following measures to address these issues:

  • Security Measures:
    • BSF: Border Security Force is responsible for effective domination and round the clock surveillance of International Border with Bangladesh.
    • CIBMS: The Ministry of Home Affairs is in the process of deploying a Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) through integration of radars, sensors, cameras, communication networks and command and control solutions. As part of it, BOLD-QIT (Border Electronically Dominated QRT Interception Technique) has been operationalized at the reverine border at Dhubri, Assam between India and Bangladesh.
    • Others: Up-gradation of intelligence network, improved border infrastructure through fencing, floodlighting, patrol roads etc.
  • Diplomatic measures: A three-tier bilateral institutional mechanism was set up between India and Bangladesh in 1994 to resolve security and border management issues. In July, 2011, a Co-ordinated Border Management Plan (CBMP) was signed between the two countries for proper management of International border.
  • Developmental measures: Various developmental works in the border areas have been undertaken by the MHA under the Border Area Development Programme (BADP) as part of a comprehensive approach to the border management.

India is taking security, diplomatic and developmental measures to manage this difficult border. Further, effective border management requires the involvement and cooperation of the local people as well as sustainable cooperation mechanisms with Bangladesh.

Subjects : Security Issues

Steps to Tackle Maoism

Proactive policing

Security forces are no longer reactive.

Example of Gariaband region in Chhattisgarh:

  • When the Maoists decided to deepen their roots into Gariaband, the State government notified this division as a new district (in 2012). This gave a fillip to development work.
  • Many new police stations and security camps were set up to prevent any major Maoist attack.
  • The cadre strength of the Maoists has consequently reduced.

Example of Raigarh:

  • Police action in Raigarh district eventually forced the Maoists to abandon their plan of expansion.
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs, too, subsequently removed Raigarh from its Security Related Expenditure (SRE) scheme.

Example of central India:

  • When the Maoists decided to create a new zone in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh, the target districts were immediately put on alert, so as not to allow them to gain ground.
  • Security forces were redeployed to ensure better territorial command.

Better Inter-State coordination:

  • As the Chhattisgarh police have experience in tackling Maoists in Bastar, they are now coordinating with the bordering States to strengthen intelligence and ground presence.
  • Such coordinated proactive policing will dampen the Maoists’ plans.

2. Holistic Approach:

  • The Maoist problem is not merely a law and order issue.
  • A permanent solution lies in eliminating the root cause of the problem that led to the alienation of tribals in this area.
  • Improved connectivity and communication: The focus now is to build roads and install communication towers to increase administrative and political access of the tribals, and improve the reach of government schemes.
  • Enhanced income: The government has enhanced the support price of minor forest produce like imli (tamarind).
  • Financial inclusion: More bank branches have been opened to ensure financial inclusion.
  • Entertainment: All India Radio stations in the three southern districts of Bastar will now broadcast regional programmes to increase entertainment options.
  • Improved trade: And a new rail service in Bastar is set to throw open a new market for wooden artefacts and bell metal.

Engaging youth through education and employment:

Weaning away children from Maoists and towards education:

  • Maoists are providing combat training to children in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
  • Despite the Maoists not wanting their children to study and get government jobs, remarkable work has been done in the field of school education and skill development.
  • An educational hub and a livelihood centre in Dantewada district sprang up. Earlier, the hostel of the Ramakrishna Mission in Narainpur was the only place where children could get quality education.

Livelihood training:

  • Seeing its success, the government has now opened up livelihood centres, known as Livelihood Colleges, in all the districts.
  • If the youth are constructively engaged by the government, the recruitment of youth by the Maoists will slowly stop.

Role of civil society

  • The government’s rehabilitation policies have helped the surrendered cadres turn their lives around.
  • Indian democracy is strong enough to absorb even its adversaries if they abjure violence.
  • Loopholes in implementing government schemes must not be used as a tool to strengthen the hands of the Maoists.
  • Civil society must join hands with the government in realising the villagers’ right to development.


  • The two-pronged policy of direct action by the security forces combined with development is showing results.
  • The government has already made a dent in most of the affected districts and is determined to check the expansion of Maoists.
  • The paradigm of proactive policing and holistic development should ensure more such significant results in the future.

Everything about Missiles

What is a missile?

  • A missile is essentially a sophisticated bomb which after being released is governed by the laws of ballistics.
  • The laws of ballistics means only the force of gravity acts upon it.
  • It can be made more accurate and faster by attaching a propulsion system to the bomb and then it is called a rocket.
  • If guided and controlled, a rocket can be made deadlier and that is what a missile is.
  • The missiles can carry tons of nuclear warheads at speeds way higher than fighter planes.


Missiles are classified variously based on the launching system. Thus, missiles can be:

  • Surface-to-Surface Missile
  • Surface-to-Air Missile
  • Surface (Coast)-to-Sea Missile
  • Air-to-Air Missile
  • Air-to-Surface Missile
  • Sea-to-Sea Missile
  • Sea-to-Surface (Coast) Missile

Based on the working principle, missiles can be:

  • Ballistics
  • Cruise

Classified by range and proposed use, missiles can be:

  • Short RMedium RaIntermediate RangeMissile
  • Intercontinental Ballistic Missile

How is a ballistic missile different from a cruise one?

  • A ballistic missile is used to hit a predetermined target —launched such that it burns most of its fuel to attain the desired velocity in the first phase (also called the boost phase).
  • Such a missile can only be guided during the powered phase of flight.
  • 31 countries have operational ballistic missile systems.
  • India’s Agni and Prithvi are ballistic missile.
  • A cruise missile is a small pilotless craft that carries an explosive warhead.
  • It has wings and an engine, but is built more economically.
  • It is steered by inertial navigation system (INS), that’s also used by airplanes.
  • A cruise missile can be made so accurate that it can be aimed at any specific place like a door or a window.
  • Its flight can be guided for a longer period.
  • BrahMos is a cruise missile system.

Intercontinental Ballistic Missile

  • Ballistic missiles are categorised according to their range, which is the maximum distance along the surface of the earth from the point of launch to the point of impact of its payload.
  • Until recently, Russia, US, China, the UK, France and Israel were the only countries with operational ICBM technology.
  • With Hwasong-15, North Korea’s joined this club.
  • With over 5,000-km range, India’s Agni-V also qualifies for this club.

Which countries have the longest range of operational ballistic missiles?

Russia, US and China have many missile systems that qualify for the ICBM range.

Everything about Brahmos


• It is a medium-range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarine, ships, aircraft or land.

• It is a joint venture between the Russia’s NPO Mashinostroeyenia and India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation.

• It has derived its name from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.


• It travels at the speed of Mach 2.8 to 3.0.

• The missile is first propelled by a solid propellant booster engine that takes it to supersonic speeds.

• After it separates, the missile is accelerated further to around three times the speed of sound (mach 3) in the cruise phase with a liquid ramjet.


• It has a flight range upto 290 Km.

• Recently, the range variants were upgraded from 290 km to 450 km after India joined the Missile Technology Control Regime.

Fire and Forget:

• It operates on ‘Fire and Forget Principle’, adopting varieties of flights on its way to the target.

• It takes a variety of trajectories while in flight and is equipped with advanced guidance technology.

• Its stealth features also give it a low radar signature.

Air-launched cruise missile (ALCM):

• It is a cruise missile that is launched from a military aircraft.

• Its current versions are typically standoff weapons which are used to attack predetermined land targets with conventional, nuclear or thermonuclear payloads.

SU-30 MKI:

• It is a twin-jet multirole air superiority fighter jet.

• It was developed by Russia’s Sukhoi and built under licence by India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for the Indian Air Force.

• It is a heavy, all-weather, long-range fighter jet.

• It has a maximum speed of 2 Mach with a single in flight range of 3,000 Km.

• It can carry a payload of 8,000 Kg upto a maximum altitude of 17 Km.

• Till date, Brahmos ALCM is the heaviest weapon to be deployed on the Su-30 MKI.

Completes cruise missile triad:

• The land and sea variants of Brahmos are already operational with the Indian Army and the Navy.

• The successful maiden test firing will significantly bolster the IAF’s air combat operations capability from stand-off ranges.

• The armed forces now have a multi-platform, multi-mission cruise missile that can be launched from land, sea and air.

• This completes the tactical cruise missile triad for India which is a world record.

Question on Growth of Naxalism

“Being the centers of concentration of the industrial proletariat, urban areas play an important part within the political strategy of the new Democratic Revolution”. Examine this statement in the light of rising Maoist activity in the urban areas and why is it essential to keep a close watch on Maoist activities in towns and cities?

 Introduce the first statement of the question
 Evidences of Maoist activities in urban centres
 Causes for the rise in Maoist activities


The urban movement has a defined role in the political strategy and military strategy of the CPI (Maoist). They believe that in the absence of a strong revolutionary urban movement, the growth of the people’s war will face limitations and difficulties in its advancement. Working class leadership is the indispensable condition for the Maoist design in India. Working class has to send its advanced detachments to rural areas. The rebels stress on forming secret party units in the bastis and slums of the urban areas. Their main focus is that of mass political mobilization by inculcating the leadership qualities in the urban working class: the real class, according to Karl Marx, which possesses the consciousness of revolution.

 The basic task of the Communist Party of India (Maoists) in the urban domain is to deal with the problem of coordination between open and secret work. Another chief component is to retain contacts between city organization and leadership in the rural areas – the heartland of the insurgency.
 Propaganda through student-worker organizations would be the mainstay of their strategy
 According to latest estimates, 104 districts in 13 states are affected by the Maoist movement.
 With 2017 marking the 50th anniversary of the Naxalite movement, security forces
stationed in the so-called Red Corridor have sounded the alarm that recent attacks on security forces could signal the start of a resurgence of anti-state activity by the armed insurgents. On March 11, 12 personnel of the CRPF were killed by Maoists in Sukma of Chhattisgarh.
 India’s central and eastern parts, home to about 84 million adivasi, or indigenous people,is rich in mineral resources. Renewed mining activity pose a threat to their livelihoods. Most of them are subsistence farmers or landless, mainly living in extreme poverty.
 The Naxalite movement heavily draws intellectual support from urban intelligentsia.
 Maoists from Andhra Pradesh helped organize tribals in Chhattisgarh over the issue of land rights and displacement during the 1980s. The state has emerged as the stronghold of the Maoists in recent decades since 2000 when mining was initiated.
 The movement keeps on reappearing like a phoenix because the basic socio-economic factors, which are responsible for it, remain unaddressed. Poverty continues to be a problem and, according to the expert group headed by C Rangarajan, 29.5% of the population lived below the poverty line in 2011-12. Wealth is increasing, but its distribution is unequal.
 Unemployment is another area of concern. Land reforms have been forgotten. Tribals are an alienated lot, largely due to their displacement as a result of developmental activities in the forest areas.
 Home Ministry has identified several org. in Delhi & National Capital Region as Maoist front organizations.
 These organizations and political parties try to gain inroads by talking about issues
like “bijli, paani, sadak aur rojgaar “, issues that are relevant to the common person. At the same time, the masterminds work on their bigger strategy of disruption and taking over control of government.

Way forward:
 The state police to take the terrorists/extremists head-on, to win the battle against terrorism/extremism.
 Government departments to establish themselves in areas when the Maoists have been driven away, so that it does not surface again.
 Step up human intelligence network and continue to nab the urban outfits of the Maoists as they had been doing for some time recently.
 Unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, equipped with cameras, data and video links are the latest weapons can be deployed against Naxals in India.
 Government service delivery should be improved in these tribal areas. Both state and government must ensure that things such as statutory minimum wages, access to land and water sources initiatives are implemented.
 By opening dialogue, the government can give opportunity for the rebels 2join the
mainstream by showing them that solutions can be created together with the government, by being part of the political system in a legitimate way




  • Dhruv has been indigenously designed and developed by the HAL, and is powered by the Shakti engine jointly developed with Turbomeca of France.
  • It is a twin engine, multi-role, multi-mission new generation helicopter.
  • It is superior to the other helicopters used by the Army such as Cheetah and Chetak, both of which have single engine.
  • It has been exported to several countries in the region.
  • As a part of military diplomacy, India has offered it to several friendly countries in the neighbourhood and South-East Asia.

Cyber attack – ransomware , NotPetya

  • It is a malicious software that blocks access to computers and data until a sum of money is paid. NotPetya is the second major global ransomware since WannaCry, which had infected about 3,00,000 computers across 200 countries in May. Similar to WannaCry, one of the means by which Petya spread was by exploiting the MS12-010 vulnerability, also known as EternalBlue. Microsoft had issued a security patch to fix it in March.
  • The Petya ransomware not only encrypts files, but also overwrites and encrypts the master boot record. It shuts down the system about an hour after the infection and asks for ransom on rebooting. Users will not be able to access the system till the infection is removed. The PC might be protected from the malware in case the user is able to disrupt the system reboot.
  • Ransomware is a piece of malicious software which takes control of your system and files. Upon taking over, it applies encryption on those files and asks for money for a key that can restore the files. The ransomware often scrambles file names and changes their extension.