Social Issues: Beti Bachao Beti Padhao initiative, Child Sex Ratio (CSR),

Headline : How a district in Rajasthan shot to the top of ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ chart

Details :

In News:

  • Nagaur district of Rajasthan has become one of the country’s 10 best performing districts in the awareness generation and outreach activities category under the Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (BBBP) scheme.

Child Sex Ratio (CSR): Number of girls per 1000 of boys between 0-6 years of age

Background:

  • The trend of decline in the Child Sex Ratio (CSR) has been unabated since 1961.
  • The CSR declined from 945 in 1991 to 927 in 2001 and further to 918 in 2011.
  • A decline in the CSR is a major indicator of women disempowerment, and reflects
    • pre-birth discrimination (sex selective abortion)
    • post-birth discrimination (limited access to health, nutrition and education).
  • For coordinated and convergent efforts needed to ensure survival, protection and empowerment of the girl child, Government announced Beti Bachao Beti Padhao initiative.

About: Beti Bachao Beti Padhao initiative

  • Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) was launched by the Prime Minister in 2015 as a comprehensive scheme that promotes the girl child’s empowerment, with Pan-India expansion in March 2018 to all 640 Districts (Census 2011).
  • This is a joint initiative of Ministry of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Human Resource Development.

Objectives

  • Prevention of gender biased sex selective elimination
  • Ensuring survival & protection of the girl child
  • Ensuring education and participation of the girl child

News Summary:

  • The Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) initiatives introduced in the district have resulted in the increase in the child sex ratio from 897 in 2011 to 965 now.
  • Initiatives under the BBBP:
    • Chuppi Todo Abhiyaan (Break the Silence): Chuppi Todo Abhiyan helped the district to spread awareness about menstrual hygiene.
    • Girl Birth Celebration: Celebration of birth of girl child by the district administration has also contributed towards building the new narrative.
    • Ratri Chaupals (night public hearings): Ratri Chaupals are organised regularly and competitions and interactions are held to bring issues of women to the forefront, with the first subject discussed in the public hearing is Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao.
    • Coffee with Collector: The initiative has helped in increasing independence of women representatives such as Sarpanch. Direct interaction of surpanch with people has resulted into more women coming up and confiding about their issues.

Section : Social Issues

In Brief: About Anti-vaccine campaign, About Measles

Headline : Global measles cases up 300 per cent year-on-year, WHO

Details :

News Summary

  • According to WHO, the number of cases of measles world over has seen an increase by 300% in the first 3 months of 2019 compared to same period in 2018.
  • The increase in measles cases around the world is attributed to anti-vaccination stigma. According to WHO data, the global vaccination rates have decreased.

 

Data

  • According to WHO, total number of measles cases reported globally is 112,163 between January and March 2019.
  • Africa with low vaccination coverage has witnessed a spike in 700% in measles cases reported.
  • Israel, Thailand and Tunisia have also experienced alarming outbreaks among unvaccinated groups.
  • Philippines and Brazil saw the biggest increase in 2018.

 

About Anti-vaccine campaign

Introduction

  • Anti-vax campaigns are campaigns against the use of MMR vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.
  • The main reason attributed to spike in measles cases is decreasing global vaccination rates.
  • Global vaccination rates are decreasing due to growing vaccine hesitancy.
  • Vaccine hesitancy for measles has been growing world over as result of anti-vaccination stigma.

Anti-vax campaign: Reasons

  • Link with autism:The campaigns are spreading misinformation that MMR vaccine is linked with autism in children.
  • Religious reason: Besides some ultra-orthodox communities are resisting MMR vaccines for religious reasons like a particular Jew community in New York.
  • Social media: Besides social media has accelerated the speed at which the misinformation in spread across the world.
  • Populist measure: In countries like Italy and France, politicians have supported the anti-vaccination campaign as a populist measure.

 

About Measles

Introduction

  • It is a contagious air-borne infection of the respiratory tract.
  • It is caused by a virus in the paramyxovirus family.
  • It can spread through direct contact or coughing, sneezing etc.

High-risk group

  • It affects mostly children under the age of 5 years.
  • Unvaccinated groups including children, pregnant women.
  • People with weak immune system.

Symptoms

  • High fever
  • Runny nose and cough
  • Red and watery eyes,
  • Small white spots inside the cheeks
  • Rashes in face, upper neck, hands and feet

Effects

  • Severe respiratory infections such as pneumonia.
  • Serious complications include blindness, encephalitis (brain swelling), and diarrhea.

 

Section : Social Issues

Why the latest Ebola outbreak in Congo is a growing concern?

Headline : Why the latest Ebola outbreak in Congo is a growing concern?

Details :

News Context

  • Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo has become the second-deadliest in history with 1,220 confirmed and probable cases, including 772 deaths, since Aug 2018.
  • However, despite a worsening Ebola epidemic, the World Health Organization has decided not to declare the outbreak a global health emergency.

Note: The deadliest Ebola outbreak was in West Africa (Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia) from 2014-16, that killed more than 11,300 people.

 

About Ebola

  • Ebola is a virus that can spread quickly and can be fatal in up to 90% of cases.
  • Symptoms: Fever, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain and at times internal and external bleeding.
  • Incubation period (time before the symptoms of a viral infection appear): 2- 21 days
  • Spreading of the virus: The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
    • The virus is most often spread by close contact with the bodily fluids of people exhibiting symptoms and with objects such as sheets that have been contaminated.
    • Health care workers are often at risk of being infected, and burial practices that call for close contact with Ebola victims can spread the disease.
  • Treatment: There is no licensed treatment for Ebola, however, receiving early care such as rehydration and treatment of other symptoms helps to improve survival chances.
    • However, recently, a new experimental Ebola vaccine has been shown to be effective.
  • Presently affected areas: North-eastern provinces of Congo sharing borders with Rwanda, South Sudan and Uganda.

 

Why WHO has not declared Ebola a global health emergency?

  • According to WHO, the epidemic does not meet the global emergency criteria because it has remained limited to two northeastern provinces and has not reached other countries, even though the affected areas share borders with Rwanda, South Sudan and Uganda.
  • Also, the WHO experts are moderately optimistic that the outbreak could be contained within a foreseeable time.

Challenges in containing Ebola:

  • This is the first Ebola outbreak to occur in a war zone, where multiple rebel groups are active in Congo’s northeast, killing hundreds of people in recent years.
  • Attacks have led to a traumatized population that can be cautious of outsiders, which makes it difficult for health workers to treat the affected population and explain them about the importance of safe burials and other preventative measures.
  • The health teams often faced attacks from the people and in some cases had to shut down their clinics
Section : Social Issues

In Brief: Sedition, Defamation, AFSPA laws: Should repeal or amend

Headline : Sedition, Defamation, AFSPA laws that Congress wants to repeal or amend

Details :

The news

  • A national party has released its manifesto for the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, in which it promised to repeal or amend laws related to Sedition, Defamation and AFSPA, if they come to the power. 

General information about the laws related to Sedition, Defamation and AFSPA

The Sedition law

  • Section 124A in the Indian Penal Code defines sedition as follows-
    • “Whoever, by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise, brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards the Government established by law in India, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, to which fine may be added, or with imprisonment which may extend to three years, to which fine may be added, or with fine.”
  • According to this section of IPC, the Sedition is a cognisable and non-bailable offence.
  • It was first introduced in 1870 by the Britishers to target nationalist leaders and it was used on leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi, etc.

 

 

The Defamation law

  • In India, defamation is both a civil and a criminal offence.
  • As a civil offence, defamation in India is not regulated by any legislation rather it is only guided by a law made by the judges.
  • As a criminal offence, it is defined by Section 499 of the Indian Penal Code as follows-
    • “Whoever, by words either spoken or intended to be read, or by signs or by visible representations, makes or publishes any imputation concerning any person intending to harm, or knowing or having reason to believe that such imputation will harm, the reputation of such person, is said, except in the cases hereinafter expected, to defame that person.”
  • As a criminal offence, it is bailable and non-cognisable.
  • It is punishable with imprisonment up to two years, or with fine, or with both.
  • Unlike the English common law, India didn’t distinguish punishments for libel (written) and slander (spoken) defamations but covered both under the meaning of Section 499.

 

 

The Armed Forces Special Power Act

  • It was passed in 1958 for the North-East and in 1990 for Jammu & Kashmir.
  • The preamble of the law defines it as-
    • “An Act to enable certain special powers to be conferred upon members of the armed forces in disturbed areas.”
  • The law gives armed forces special powers to control “disturbed areas”.
  • Disturbed areas are designated by the government when it opines that any region is in such a disturbed or dangerous condition that the use of armed forces in aid of civil power is necessary.
  • Under the law, the armed forces have powers to open fire, enter and search without warrant, and arrest any person who has committed a cognizable offence.
  • They have also been provided immunity from being prosecuted under the law.
  • The law has been repealed from Tripura in 2015 and from Meghalaya in 2018.
  • Its use has also been restricted in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Currently, AFSPA is implemented in Jammu & Kashmir, Assam, Nagaland, and parts of Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur.

 

 

Criticism of these laws

Sedition

  • The law was introduced by the Britishers to have control over the activities of the nationalist leaders but even after Independence, the section continued to remain in force.
  • Since then, the section has been repeatedly used by the governments to curb criticism against them.
  • The courts have repeatedly said that this section can only be used as a measure for maintaining public order.

 

Defamation

  • Many governments and influential persons have also been accused of misusing the defamation law for suppressing legitimate criticism.

 

 

AFSPA

  • The government agencies have been criticized for providing impunity to the police force under AFSPA.
  • National and international human rights agencies have also criticized the act for violating human rights in the areas where AFSPA is in force.
  • There are some instances of allegations of crimes by armed forces like extra-judicial killings and rapes, etc.
  • The 2004 Jeevan Reddy Committee has also recommended a complete repeal of the law.

 

Section : Polity & Governance

Everything about Autism

Headline : AIIMS doctors develop application to help in timely diagnosis of autism 

Details : 

The News

  • In the backdrop of the World Autism Awareness Day, doctors at AIIMS have developed a mobile app for early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
  • World Autism Awareness Day is observed on April 2 every year.

About the App

  • The app developed is called PedNeuroAiimsDiagnostics.
  • It is a questionnaire-based app which has 2 sections of questionnaire
  1. Section A has questions to assess the social interaction and communication skills
  2. Section B has questions to analyse the response given to questions in section A.
  • Based on the response to the questionnaire the app analyses if the child has any of the Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Accordingly the following cases are considered to be suffering with ASD
  • A child who cannot babble or point or gesture by 12 months
  • Couldn’t say single word by 16 months
  • Couldn’t say any two-word spontaneous phrases by 24 months
  • Loss of language or social skills at any age.
  • The App is easy to use with even a paediatrician can assess the test results.
  • The app is very sensitive in that detects 98% of cases.
  • It is also very specific in that it predicts specifically which of the ASD in 92% of the cases.

 

In focus: Autism Spectrum Disorders

About ASD

  • Autism is a developmental disorder associated with the neurological condition of the child.
  • It shows signs in the first 3 years of child development.
  • Autism is a brain malfunction mainly associated with impairments in 3 main areas
  • Communication skills
  • Social interactions 
  • Repetitive and restricted activities
  • Autism mainly occurs due to abnormalities in brain structure and function which can occur due to varied reasons.
  • As a result Autism is grouped under a spectrum of disorders called Autism Spectrum Disorders.

 

 

Common behavior pattern

  • In general autistic individual s have different ways of ‘sensing’ their world
  • Lack of emotional connection
  • Lack of eye contact while communicating
  • Not reacting or inconsistently reacting when their name is called out
  • Hypersensitivity to noise
  • Lost in own thoughts
  • Hitting or biting themselves
  • Lack of non-verbal communication
  • Inability to follow objects visually
  • Inability to make friends
  • Repetitive body movements
  • Repeating their own sentences

 Causes

  • There is no single cause for Autism.
  • Different children suffering from Autism are due to different causes.
  • Some commonly identified factors include
  • Gene mutations: No single gene is associated with Autism.
  • Environmental stresses
  • Parental age at the time of conception
  • Maternal illnesses during pregnancy
  • Mother who is a victim of drug and alcohol abuse
  • Oxygen deprivation to the child’s brain etc
  • However it should be noted that there is no conclusive direct correlation with any of the factors above listed.

 

Types

  • Since no two individual suffer from Autism due to same cause, different conditions are grouped under ASD.
  • It can vary between mild learning and social disability, to more complex emotional and physical disabilities.

Asperger’s syndrome

  • Mild form of Autism
  • Obsessive interest in a particular object or subject

Pervasive developmental disorder

  • This is more severe than Asperger’s syndrome
  • No two people suffering from the disease will exhibit the same symptoms
  • Common symptoms include
  • Poor social interaction
  • Impaired language skills

 

Autistic disorder

  • Most severe form of ASD.
  • Multiple impairments
  • Mental retardation and seizures

Note: Rett syndrome and Childhood disintegrative disorder are rare ASDs

Section : social issues

Who are the Dhangars of Maharashtra, and why do they want ST status?

Headline : Who are the Dhangars of Maharashtra, and why do they want ST status?

Details :

Why in news?

  • Recently, Maharashtra has announced extension of all social welfare schemes available to Scheduled Tribes to the Dhangar community of the state.

 

Who are the Dhangars?

  • The Dhangars are shepherd community, living mostly in Western Maharashtra and Marathwada.
  • They constitute about 9% of Maharashtra’s population.
  • They are currently on Maharashtra’s list of Vimukta Jati and Nomadic Tribes (VJNT), but have been demanding Scheduled Tribe (ST) status for the past several decades.

 

Why are they demanding ST status?

  • As claimed by Dhangar community, their community is the same as “Dhangad” which has been given Scheduled Tribe status elsewhere in the country.
  • Because of some typological error their community name has been recorded as “Dhangar” in Maharashtra, instead of Dhangads, denying them the benefits available to the ST “Dhangads”.

 

Background

  • Dhangars community has been demanding Scheduled Tribe status in the country from decades.
  • In 2015, the Maharashtra government asked the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) to establish whether the Dhangars of Maharashtra were the same as the Dhangads elsewhere in the country, and also to create a safeguard against any legal challenge in moving the Dhangars from the VJNT list to the ST list.
  • In November, 2018, the government received the TISS report, and started taking action on it.
  • Recently, the Maharashtra government handed over the Tata Institute of Social Sciences’ report on Dhangar reservation to state Advocate General (AG) for advice and further action.
  • However, till the AG’s recommendation comes in, all schemes of the Tribal Welfare Department will be made applicable to Dhangars with separate financial provisions.

 

Challenges

  • All other ST communities are strongly opposed to any attempt at dilution of their quota by the inclusion of a large community like the Dhangars.
  • They demand overall increase in ST quota for the inclusion of the Dhangar community.
Section : Social Issues

Everything about Project Size by NIFT

  • Indian launched a project named Size India to get its own sizing standards after following the size code of European countries or the US.

News Summary

Project Size India

  • A project is to be launched to scan and measure thousands of men and women in the age group of 15-65 years to come up with an extensive size chart that reflects the “unique Indian body structure”.
  • The survey, dubbed Size India, is to be completed by 2021 and will be implemented by the National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT).

Sample size

  • For this NIFT will try to tap the maximum diversity of ethnicity so that the data are truly representative.
  • Basic data, including gender, locality and age, will be collated for the survey.
  • While the first phase of the survey will focus on a size chart for ages 15-65 years, the second phase will map the sizes for children, and for footwear.
  • Though data will need to be updated after 10 years, but the next survey can be done at a smaller level.

Process

  • Whole body scanners will capture accurate 3D body maps, building a database of measurements.
  • The scan will use over 120 measurements to form the basis of the size chart that will be representative of the Indian population.
  • The methodology will ensure that ISO standards are used for this scientific study, so that the data is acceptable internationally.
  • The idea is to bring some discipline to the sizing chart, which at present is very fluid.

Support from other players

  • NIFT hopes to rope in industry players like e-commerce giants and others to participate.
  • Support could be in the form of funding for the project, mobilisation of people, to encourage people to participate in the survey, etc.

Benefits

  • The size chart, besides being a help to consumers, is expected to be beneficial to the apparel industry as it will lead to a reduction of returns.

Everything about Cauvery Verdict

• A three-judge Bench, led by Chief Justice of India, gave verdict on Cauvery river water dispute.

CWDT’s verdict:

The Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) verdict in 2007: Of the 740 thousand million cubic feet (TMC) of water available for utilisation,

• 419 TMC was awarded to Tamil Nadu,

• 270 TMC to Karnataka,

• 30 TMC to Kerala and

• 7 TMC to Puducherry.

• The remaining 14 TMC was reserved for environmental protection.

Supreme Court verdict:

On Water distribution:

• Increase in Karnataka share: The Supreme Court awarded Karnataka 14.75 tmc (thousand million cubic feet) of Cauvery water from Tamil Nadu’s share, reasoning that Karnataka has historically suffered “limited access to and use” of the river water.

• The 14.75 tmc for Karnataka would be taken from the 192 tmc Cauvery water supplied by Karnataka from its Biligundlu site to Mettur dam in Tamil Nadu. This means that Karnataka would now supply 177.25 tmc.

• Total distribution: So, out of a total of 740 tmc available in the 802-km long Cauvery, the Supreme Court determined that:

• Karnataka would now get 284.75 (270 + 14.75) tmc,

• Tamil Nadu’s share has been reduced from 419 tmc to 404.25,

• Kerala and Puducherry would continue to be allocated 30 tmc and 7 tmc, respectively.

• Of remaining 14 TMC, the 10 tmc were allocated for environmental protection and spared another 4 tmc for “inevitable escapages” of Cauvery water into the sea.

• Special provision to Bengaluru: The 4.75 tmc of the 14.75 tmc would be diverted to the people of Bengaluru for their domestic and drinking purposes.

Reason for increase in Karnataka’s share:

• Drought: Compared to Tamil Nadu, the court found that Karnataka, despite being the upper riparian State on the Cauvery basin, has 28 districts still reeling under drought.

• Deprivation: The court found that Karnataka has been deprived of its legitimate share and unable to use of the water of Cauvery to develop its land for irrigation.

• Bengaluru’s demand was ignored: The judgment said the drinking water needs of Karnataka, especially the burgeoning and global Bengaluru city, was somehow ignored in the water-sharing agreement reached by the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) in 2007.

Tamil Nadu to tap ground water:

• The court said there is confirmatory empirical data that Tamil Nadu has 20 tmc groundwater.

• The court asked Tamil Nadu to draw out at least 10 tmc groundwater instead of banking on Cauvery water from Karnataka.

Centre to form scheme and CMB:

• The court gave the Centre six weeks’ time to frame a Cauvery water-sharing scheme under Section 6A of the Inter-State Water Disputes Act of 1956. No extension shall be granted for framing of the scheme on any ground.

• The scheme has to be in consonance with the CWDT’s award and the changes introduced by the Supreme Court though this judgment.

• The tribunal had said the scheme will include the specialist body called the ‘Cauvery Management Board’ (CMB) to supervise the reservoir operations and regulate releases.

• The CMB will be an inter-State forum of technical experts with three whole time members appointed by the centre and representatives of the riparian States.

On plea of each States:

• Puducherry: The court allowed Puducherry’s request to grow a second crop. However, cultivation should be limited to 43,000 acres.

• Kerala: The judgment rejected Kerala’s request for a diversion of the Cauvery water for its hydro-power projects.

• Tamil Nadu:

Tamil Nadu’s plea: Ever since the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) verdict, the State had sought the creation of a body to ensure effective implementation of the order.

Establishment of the Cauvery Management Board: From the State’s point of view, the most important aspect of the court order is the recognition of the plea for the establishment of the Cauvery Management Board.

Schedule of release of water: The court has appreciated the position of the Tamil Nadu government which had, over the years, complained that Karnataka was not adhering to the schedule of water release, as worked out by the tribunal in the interim order or final order.

On the issue of irrigated area: It not only left intact the extent of irrigated area (24.71 lakh acres), as permitted by the tribunal in the final order, but also emphatically made it clear that the final determination of irrigated area arrived at by the Tribunal for Tamil Nadu cannot be declared incorrect or fallacious.

River as National Asset:

• An inter-State river like Cauvery is a ‘national asset’, and being in a state of flow, no State can claim exclusive ownership of its waters or assert a prescriptive right so as to deprive other States of their equitable share, the Supreme Court held.

• Basing its judgment on the equitable utilisation of inter-State river waters, the court said the precious right should be equally and reasonable shared by all States concerned.

• The court referred to the National Water Policy, which had reiterated time and again that water is a scarce and precious national asset.

Fair share:

• The Court said that, while river is common and equal to all through whose land it runs and no one can obstruct or divert it, yet as one of the beneficial gifts of nature, each beneficiary has a right to just and reasonable use of it.

• However, the court said the “principle of equality” among the riparian States does not imply equal division of water within an arithmetical formula.

• The apex court said, equality here means “equal consideration and equal economic opportunity of the co-basin States.”

• The court compared the sharing of inter-State river waters in India to the practices of sharing of international rivers among nations.

Examples:

• The Supreme Court referred to the Helsinki Rules of 1966, which recognise equitable use of water by each basin State taking into consideration the geography and hydrology of the basin, the climate, past utilisation of waters, economic and social needs, dependent population and availability of resources.

• The judgment also refers to the Campione Rules in the context of the Cauvery dispute. These Rules hold that basin States would in their respective territories manage the waters of an international drainage basin in an equitable and reasonable manner.

Concerns:

• The judgment however does not provide for distress years when water in Cauvery basin depletes from the 740 tmc available during a normal year.

• It widened the rift between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu with the the former welcoming the apex court’s ruling and the latter, of course, expressing deep anger at it.

Everything about Ramkrishna Mission

Ramakrishna Mission

• It is an embodiment of the synthesis of ancient Indian and modern western cultures.

• Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (1836-86) was the founder of this socio-religious movement.

• Formally, the Mission was founded in May 1897 by Paramahamsa’s disciple, Narendranath Dutta, who was later on known as Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902).

Objectives of the Mission

• To bring into existence a band of monks dedicated to a life of renunciation and practical spirituality, from among whom teachers and workers would be sent out to spread the universal message of Vedanta, as illustrated in the life of Ramakrishna.

• In conjunction with lay disciples, to carry on preaching, philanthropic and charitable works, looking upon all men, women and children, irrespective of caste, creed or colour, as veritable manifestations of the Divine.

• Paramahamsa himself founded the Ramakrishna Math with his young monastic disciples as a nucleus to fulfill the first objective.

• The second objective was taken up by Swami Vivekananda after Ramakrishna’s death. Vivekananda carried the message of Ramakrishna all over India.

Belur Math

• The headquarters of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission are at Belur, near Kolkata.

• This centre was established in 1898 by Swami Vivekananda.

• The Math is a religious trust dedicated to the nursing of the inner spiritual life of the members of the monastery.

• The Mission is a charitable society dedicated to the expression of inner spiritual life in outward collective action in the service of men.

• The Belur Math is the headquarters of both the Math and the Mission.

Religious and social reforms

• The Mission has given top priority to the idea of social service, both in terms of philanthropic work and upliftment of religious and spiritual life.

• It has been successful in propagating the universal principle of Vedanta and giving a true picture of India to the western world.

• The Mission has opened many schools and dispensaries, and helped the victims of natural calamities.

What are the various forms in which gender based violence manifests. Discuss the causes that lead to it. Do you agree that it remains biggest impediment to the advancement of women in India?

Approach:
● Introduce with what gender violence is
● Talk about various forms of violence – preferably under different categories
● Talk about the causes – can break it into various categories.
● Discuss aspects of women development that get affected by gender violence
● Conclude by summarizing and giving brief suggestions to end gender violence.

Answer:
Gender based violence is primarily used to refer to acts of violence committed against women.
A result of unequal distribution of power in society between women and men, it gets
manifested throughout the entire lifecycle of the women- right from the womb of the mother till death.

Takes place in many forms:
Gender based violence takes place in many forms, including physical violence – through assault, domestic violence, honour killings; sexual violence – groping, workplace harassment, sexual assault; verbal violence – through use of abusive and filthy language; social violence – like humiliating a woman or her family in public; emotional violence– by depriving women of love , care , concern; financial violence – by depriving basic financial means.

Various causes of gender based violence includes:
Socio-Cultural factors:
● The patriarchal notions of ownership over women’s bodies, sexuality, labor,
reproductive rights, mobility and level of autonomy encourage violence against women.
● Dogmatic religious beliefs with deep-rooted ideas of male superiority are also used to
legitimize control over women.
Economic factors:
● Poverty, lack of education and livelihood opportunities, and inadequate access to basic
services like shelter, food, water can increase exposure to gender violence, including
forced prostitution or survival sex.
Legal-Administrative factors:
● Inadequate legal framework, State’s inability to enforce laws, unequal access to justice,
gender bias in legal institutions and mechanisms, slow justice system result in culture of
impunity for violence and abuse .
Individual factors:
● Threat/fear of stigma, isolation and social exclusion and exposure to further violence at
the hands of the perpetrator, the community or the authorities, including arrest,
detention, ill-treatment and punishment force women to suffer silently.
Yes, gender violence is one of the biggest hurdles in women’s advancement due to following factors:
● It seriously affects all aspects of women’s health- physical, sexual and reproductive,
mental and behavioural health, thus prevents them from realizing their full potential.
● Violence and threat of violence affects women’s ability to participate actively, and as
equals, in many forms of social and political relationships.
● Workplace harassment and domestic violence has an impact on women’s participation
in workforce and their economic empowerment.
● Sexual harassment limits the educational opportunities and achievements of girls.
Thus, half of our human capital will not be able to realize its true potential till gender violence is curbed in all its forms. The underlying causes must be addressed though adequate legal framework and its strict enforcement, building institutional capability, along with gender sensitization campaigns to change attitudes towards women.