Audio Recordings of Vajiram and Ravi: Latest Batch
- Introduce with what a PCR is and its objective
- Make a note on the current scenario of credit assessment
- Enumerate the benefits of PCR
- Conclusion appropriately
- A PCR can potentially help banks in credit assessment and pricing of credit.
- It is required to improve the credit culture in our country. It has been demonstrated in the ‘Doing Business 2017’ report that credit information systems impart transparency in the credit market, following which access to credit improves and delinquencies decrease.
- A central repository which captures the credit data will help in preventing overpledging of collateral by a borrower.
- PCR can help in early intervention and effective restructuring of stressed bank credits.
- It will also benefit start-ups, new entrepreneurs, and small MSMEs who are presently disadvantaged as they lack many of the desired qualifications (that big businesses have) for credit. Transparency of credit information would serve as a “reputational collateral” for such borrowers. This would not only help promote financial inclusion, but also reward the good borrowers thereby imparting credit discipline.
- The PCR can also help RBI in understanding whether transmission of monetary policy is working, and if not remove the bottlenecks.
Subjects : Current Affairs
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What were the factors responsible for American revolution? Examine the effects of the revolution.
- Briefly introduce American Revolution
- Explain the various factors responsible for American Revolution
- Mention the effects/outcomes of the American Revolution
- Conclude appropriately
- Navigation Law of 1651 – It was compulsory for American ships to visit British ports before leaving for other parts of the world.
- American colonies were not allowed to establish manufacturing units, especially heavy industries.
- After the end of Seven Years War in 1763 (British and Allies vs French and Allies), Britain faced severe economic crisis. In this situation British Parliament’s policy to impose various taxes on American colonies like stamp duty, sugar duty, etc. In response, Massachusetts Assembly demanded representation in British parliament by giving the slogan ‘No Taxation Without Representation’.
- Samuel Adams organised mass protest in Boston in response to the Townshed Plan(It increased import duty on tea). Britain took military action against them and it led to Boston Massacre. In response to which Samuel Adams along with his supporters threw away the tea containers into Atlantic ocean. This was Boston Tea Party of 1773.
- By the Treaty of Paris, 1783, Britain left all its claims on American colonies. It led to political and economic upheaval in Britain.
- The 13 colonies became independent and determined to be loosely connected under the 1781 Articles of Confederation.
Subjects : History and Culture
- Brief Introduction to droughts in India
- Mention causes for droughts, and briefly mention problems that arise due to them
- Discuss how to mitigate drought problem.
- Conclude appropriately
- The South-west monsoon accounts for 70 to 80 per cent of the annual rainfall over major parts of India. Failure of monsoon is a major reason for droughts in India.
- Skewed distribution of monsoon rains across different regions of India make some regions chronically prone to droughts.
- Depletion of surface and sub-surface water resources, especially in areas of low yearly rainfall.
- Climatological factors like El Nino impact the onset of southwest monsoon and moisture carrying capacity.
- Inappropriate agricultural activities leading to excessive water use cause depletion in water levels.
- Activities such as deforestation and encroachment of wetlands lessen the ability of land to hold water.
- Anthropogeic activities leading to global warming, result in fluctuations in phenomenon like monsoons.
- Systems: Drought monitoring, advanced warning systems and Drought Management Plans at various levels.
- Integrated Watershed Management: Focus should be on conserving and developing degraded natural resources including water through moisture conservation, rain water harvesting etc. especially in drought-prone areas and deserts.
- Irrigation: Irrigation facilities reduce dependency on monsoon, and techniques like drip irrigation reduce usage of water. Ex- SAUNI project.
- Agriculture: Proper agricultural practices (right crops, crop rotation etc.) based on agro-climatic conditions
- Capacity Development: Human resource development, training, education (including public awareness campaigns) and capacity building
- Crop Insurance
Subjects : Disaster Management
Headline : Who are the Dhangars of Maharashtra, and why do they want ST status?
Why in news?
- Recently, Maharashtra has announced extension of all social welfare schemes available to Scheduled Tribes to the Dhangar community of the state.
Who are the Dhangars?
- The Dhangars are shepherd community, living mostly in Western Maharashtra and Marathwada.
- They constitute about 9% of Maharashtra’s population.
- They are currently on Maharashtra’s list of Vimukta Jati and Nomadic Tribes (VJNT), but have been demanding Scheduled Tribe (ST) status for the past several decades.
Why are they demanding ST status?
- As claimed by Dhangar community, their community is the same as “Dhangad” which has been given Scheduled Tribe status elsewhere in the country.
- Because of some typological error their community name has been recorded as “Dhangar” in Maharashtra, instead of Dhangads, denying them the benefits available to the ST “Dhangads”.
- Dhangars community has been demanding Scheduled Tribe status in the country from decades.
- In 2015, the Maharashtra government asked the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) to establish whether the Dhangars of Maharashtra were the same as the Dhangads elsewhere in the country, and also to create a safeguard against any legal challenge in moving the Dhangars from the VJNT list to the ST list.
- In November, 2018, the government received the TISS report, and started taking action on it.
- Recently, the Maharashtra government handed over the Tata Institute of Social Sciences’ report on Dhangar reservation to state Advocate General (AG) for advice and further action.
- However, till the AG’s recommendation comes in, all schemes of the Tribal Welfare Department will be made applicable to Dhangars with separate financial provisions.
- All other ST communities are strongly opposed to any attempt at dilution of their quota by the inclusion of a large community like the Dhangars.
- They demand overall increase in ST quota for the inclusion of the Dhangar community.
Headline : Prelims Program: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
About Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
- OPEC is a permanent intergovernmental organization of 14 oil-exporting nations.
- It coordinates and unifies the petroleum policies of its Member Countries.
- The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was founded in Baghdad, Iraq, in 1960 by five countries (Founder Members of the Organization):
- Islamic Republic of Iran
- Saudi Arabia
- The current OPEC members are the following:Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, the Republic of the Congo, Saudi Arabia (the de facto leader), United Arab Emirates, and
- The OPEC headquarters are located in Vienna, Austria.
OPEC: Global Scenario
- The formation of OPEC was the first step towards national sovereignty over natural resources.
- Over a period of time, the decisions of the organisation have played a prominent role in the global oil market.
- The influence of OPEC on international trade has been challenged by:
- The expansion of non-OPEC energy sources
- The climate change solutions
- Shale gas resources by US
- By the recurring temptation for individual OPEC countries to exceed production targets
- The mission of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is to:
- Coordinate and unify the petroleum policies of its Member Countries
- Ensure the stabilization of oil markets in order to secure an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consumers
- Steady income to producers
- Fair return on capital for those investing in the petroleum industry
Note: OPEC has been in news recently and the related topics have been covered on portal.