Prelims 310

With reference to provisions/outcomes of Montague Declaration, 1917, consider the following statements:
1. It provided for the establishment of a responsible government in India.
2. The demand for self-government could not be termed as seditious.
3. It aimed at increasing association of Indians in every branch of administration.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
1 and 2 only
1 and 3 only
2 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3
Explanation :
On 20th August, 1917 Lord Montague, the Secretary of State for India, made the following declaration in British Parliament: “The Policy of His Majesty’s government is that of increasing association of Indians in every branch of administration, and the gradual development of self- governing institutions, with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British empire.”
Importance of Montagu’s Statement- From then onwards, the demand by nationalists for self-government or Home Rule could not be termed as seditious since attainment of self-government for Indians became a government policy, unlike Morley’s statement in 1909 that the reforms were not intended to give self-government to India.


Topper DURISHETTY ANUDEEP worked in Google, Graduated from BITS PILANI in 2011, UPSC RANK 790 in 2013 Examination and Now Topper in 2017 upsc Examination!!

Topper DURISHETTY ANUDEEP worked in Google, Graduated from BITS PILANI in 2011, UPSC RANK 790 in 2013 Examination and Now Topper in 2017 upsc Examination!!

Delimitation Commission

It is established by Government of India under the provisions of the Delimitation Commission Act. The main task of the commission is to redraw the boundaries of the various assembly and Lok Sabha constituencies based on a recent census. The representation from each state is not changed during this exercise. However, the numbers of SC and ST seats in a state are changed in accordance with the census. The Commission is a powerful body whose orders cannot be challenged in a court of law. The orders are laid before the Lok Sabha and the respective State Legislative Assemblies. However, modifications are not permitted. Delimitation commissions have been set up four times in the past – In 1952, 1963, 1973 and 2002 under Delimitation Commission acts of 1952, 1962, 1972 and 2002. The present delimitation of parliamentary constituencies has been done on the basis of 2001 census figures under the provisions of Delimitation Act, 2002. However, the Constitution of India was specifically amended in 2002 not to have delimitation of constituencies till the first census after 2026. Thus, the present Constituencies carved out on the basis of 2001 census shall continue to be in operation till the first census after 2026.

CSAT Paper- 2 – Vajiram and Ravi Paper

CSAT Paper- 2 – Vajiram and Ravi Paper




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Criteria for inclusion in SC list:

Recently Odisha’s Sualgiri and Swalgiri communities have been notified as Scheduled Castes.

Criteria for inclusion in SC list:

 Scheduled Castes (SCs):- Extreme social, educational and economic backwardness arising out of traditional practice of untouchability.


 The Constitution of India empowers the Parliament of India to modify the list of notified scheduled castes, which upon receiving the assent of the President of India can be notified as Scheduled Castes.

 Under the provision of Article 341, list of SCs in relation to a states/UT is to be issued by a notified Order of the President after consulting concerned State Government.

 However, the clause (2) of Article 341 envisages that, any subsequent inclusion in or exclusion from the list of Scheduled Castes can be effected only through an Act of Parliament.

 Further, Government has laid down Modalities in June, 1999, as amended in June, 2002 for processing of modifications in the lists of SCs and STs.

 The Modalities envisage that only such proposals of the concerned State Governments / Union Territory Administrations, which have been agreed to by the Registrar General of India (RGI) and National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC), in the case of SCs, are further processed in accordance with provisions of clause (2) of Articles 341 and 342 respectively.

Sabla Scheme

Sabla scheme is related to which of the following?

(a) Training women in self defence tactics.

(b) Training women panchayat leaders.

(c) Nutrition and skill development of adolescents girls.

(d) Provision of microfinance to women self help groups.

Ans: C

The Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) Sabla is a centrally sponsored program of Government of India initiated on April 1, 2011 under Ministry of Women and Child Development. Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) -―SABLA‖ replaced Kishori Shakti Yojana and Nutrition Programme for Adolescent Girls. Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls – SABLA is implemented using the platform of ICDS Scheme through Anganwadi Centers (AWCs).

o The objectives of the Scheme are:

 Enable the adolescent girls (AGs) for self-development and empowerment

 Improve their nutrition and health status.

 Promote awareness about health, hygiene, nutrition, Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health (ARSH) and family and child care.

 Upgrade their home-based skills, life skills and tie up with National Skill Development Program (NSDP) for vocational skills.

 Mainstream out of school AGs into formal/non formal education

 Provide information/guidance about existing public services such as PHC,CHC, Post Office, Bank, Police Station, etc

Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (A-TUFS)

Government launched Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (A-TUFS) in 2016 by replacing Revised Restructured
Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (ATUFS) is related
(a) modernizing and technology upgradation of leather units in India. (b) providing climate smart technologies to small farmers in order to improve productivity of agriculture.
(c) modernizing and upgradation of the textiles industry for boosting employment and export potential.
(d) upgrading 59. For passenger transport infrastructure for the disabled people.

Ans: C

Technology Fund Scheme (RRTUFS). Its objective is to upgrade technology in the textiles industry with one-time capital subsidy for eligible machinery. The amended scheme would give a boost to Make in India in the textiles sector; it is expected to attract investment to the tune of one lakh crore rupees and create over 30 lakh jobs.
The new scheme specifically targets:
 Employment generation and export by encouraging apparel and garment industry, which will provide employment to women in particular and increase India‘s share in global exports.
 Promotion of Technical Textiles, a sunrise sector, for export and employment.
 Promoting conversion of existing looms to better technology looms for improvement in quality and productivity.
 Encouraging better quality in processing industry and checking need for import of fabrics by the garment sector.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)

Consider the following statements with respect to Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY):

1. It intends to recognize the knowledge acquired and skills equipped by the participants through certification.

2. Persons from both organized and unorganized sectors can join the scheme.

3. It is being implemented by National Skill Development Corporation.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans: D

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) is the flagship scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE). It is a flagship programme that intends to recognize the knowledge acquired and skills equipped by the participants by certification. Apart from this objective of this Skill Certification Scheme is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood. Individuals with prior learning experience or skills will also be assessed and certified under Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). Under this Scheme, Training and Assessment fees are completely paid by the Government. The scheme is being implemented by National Skill Development Corporation. Hence, statements 1 and 3 are correct.

This Scheme is applicable to any candidate of Indian nationality who is an unemployed youth or, school/college dropouts, possesses an Aadhaar card and a bank account. It also included those who are in the organized and unorganized sectors. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

Kimberly Process Certification Scheme (KPCS)

• It is a joint Government, International Diamond Industry and Civil Society initiative to stem the flow of Conflict Diamonds (rough diamonds used to finance the conflicts and topple the established government).

• It was started in 2003 after the United Nations General Assembly adopted a landmark resolution in 2000 supporting the creation of an international certification scheme for rough diamond. It also finds mention in the United Nations Security Council resolutions.

• India is one of the founding member of KPCS. At present, KPCS has 54 members representing 81 countries including the EU with 28 members.

• KPCS enables the participating countries to certify the shipment in rough diamonds as ‘conflict-free’ and prevent entrance of conflict diamonds in legitimate trade.

• According to the KPCS terms, member states have to meet the ‘minimum requirements’ and also put in place national legislations and institutions, export, import and internal controls, commit to transparency and exchange of statistical data.

What do you understand by Bioprospecting? What are the main benefits and challenges associated with bioprospecting?


Introduce with explaining the concept of bioprospecting.

Explain the benefits associated with bioprospecting.

Explain the challenges associated with bioprospecting.

Conclude appropriately

Model Answer :

Biodiversity prospecting or bioprospecting is the systematic search for biochemical and genetic information in nature in order to develop commercially valuable products for pharmaceutical, agricultural, cosmetic and other applications. The phases of bioprospecting start with sample collection, isolation, characterisation and move to product development and commercialisation.

Benefits of bioprospecting:

The most important benefit is the medicinal properties of the plants and other organisms.Innovation is promoted through bioprospecting, helping countries to develop new pharmaceutical products. Even our indigenous medical system is heavily based on bioprospecting.

It also favours employment opportunities related to natural products.

The local community and business enterprises both benefit from the economic value of the plant and organisms. The Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992 ensures that the benefits derived are not abused by enterprises.

It creates an incentive to monitor and preserve biodiversity in order to avoid the risk of losing economic opportunities from competitors or extinction

Technology and knowledge transfer among countries is promoted through bioprospecting

Biodiversity conservation is boosted as local populations will become increasingly aware of the potential economic value of natural habitats.

Traditional culture and habits are preserved by rediscovering ancient native practices.

However, there are several challenges in this regard:

Bioprospecting is time-consuming which enhances the risk in terms of expected returns.There is no certainty of returns and success rate is very low.

Traditional knowledge bears the risk of biopiracy and intellectual property, especially for the countries who are not parties to Nagoya Protocol and where the local law enforcement is weak in this area.

Unequal capacities of host country stakeholders lead to unfair negotiation outcomes over benefit sharing. The negotiation of bioprospecting contracts can be difficult, including the determination of a fair price for exploration and commercialisation.

Bioprospecting involving marine environment is prone to legal risks, including of litigation in multiple jurisdictions or conflicts of jurisdiction like in Antarctica.

Unsustainable harvesting of resources and other negative environmental impacts can damage the biodiversity and environment.

The concerns can be largely dealt with stronger legal and enforcement mechanisms but the local community and the enterprises will have to work responsibly to ensure that the prospects of biodiversity are utilised sustainably.