Plato – Quotes For Essay

Only the dead have seen the end of war.

Music is a moral law. It gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, and charm and gaiety to life and to everything.

Be kind, for everyone you meet is fighting a hard battle.

Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to say something.

The measure of a man is what he does with power.

Your silence gives consent.

We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light.

You can discover more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation.

At the touch of love everyone becomes a poet.

One of the penalties for refusing to participate in politics is that you end up being governed by your inferiors.

Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly, while bad people will find a way around the laws.

The beginning is the most important part of the work.

One of the penalties for refusing to participate in politics is that you end up being governed by your inferiors.

Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly, while bad people will find a way around the laws.

The beginning is the most important part of the work.

Every heart sings a song, incomplete, until another heart whispers back. Those who wish to sing always find a song. At the touch of a lover, everyone becomes a poet.

The price good men pay for indifference to public affairs is to be ruled by evil men.

Lack of activity destroys the good condition of every human being, while movement and methodical physical exercise save it and preserve it.

Never discourage anyone… who continually makes progress, no matter how slow.

Love is a serious mental disease.

He was a wise man who invented God.

The first and greatest victory is to conquer yourself; to be conquered by yourself is of all things most shameful and vile.

Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, and knowledge.

Courage is knowing what not to fear.

Indian Political Thoughts- Buddha – Quotes

​Buddha Quotes –

You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger.

Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.

Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.

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No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.

Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.

Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared.

You, yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.

We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.

Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.

The mind is everything. What you think you become.

Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common sense.

Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill.

There are only two mistakes one can make along the road to truth; not going all the way, and not starting.

Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.

However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you if you do not act on upon them?

We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.

The way is not in the sky. The way is in the heart.

All that we are is the result of what we have thought.

Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship.

Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely

Work out your own salvation. Do not depend on others.

Aristotle Quotes For Essay

We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit.

What is a friend? A single soul dwelling in two bodies.

It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.
Pleasure in the job puts perfection in the work.

Happiness depends upon ourselves.

I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who conquers his enemies; for the hardest victory is over self.

Poverty is the parent of revolution and crime.

The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet.

The educated differ from the uneducated as much as the living from the dead.

All men by nature desire knowledge.

For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them.

All human actions have one or more of these seven causes: chance, nature, compulsion, habit, reason, passion, and desire.

No great genius has ever existed without some touch of madness.

In all things of nature there is something of the marvelous.

The worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal.

The energy of the mind is the essence of life.

A friend to all is a friend to none.

Nature does nothing uselessly.

Those who educate children well are more to be honored than they who produce them; for these only gave them life, those the art of living well.

The best friend is the man who in wishing me well wishes it for my sake.

Quality is not an act, it is a habit.

Karl Marx – Quotes

Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, just as it is the spirit of a spiritless situation. It is the opium of the people.

There is a specter haunting Europe, the specter of Communism.

The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it.

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Capital is dead labor, which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labor, and lives the more, the more labor it sucks.

The theory of Communism may be summed up in one sentence: Abolish all private property.

Men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please.

Reason has always existed, but not always in a reasonable form.

The history of all previous societies has been the history of class struggles.

The production of too many useful things results in too many useless people.

If anything is certain, it is that I myself am not a Marxist. [In a letter about the peculiar ‘Marxism’ which arose in France 1882]

The rich will do anything for the poor but get off their backs.

Religion is the opium of the masses.

The only antidote to mental suffering is physical pain.

Society does not consist of individuals but expresses the sum of interrelations, the relations within which these individuals stand.

In bourgeois society capital is independent and has individuality, while the living person is dependent and has no individuality.

From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.

While the miser is merely a capitalist gone mad, the capitalist is a rational miser.

History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce.

Last words are for fools who haven’t said enough.

Revolutions are the locomotives of history.

Nothing can have value without being an object of utility.

Mahatma Gandhi – Quotes For Essays

You must be the change you wish to see in the world.

The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.

Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.

An eye for eye only ends up making the whole world blind.

Live as if you were to die tomorrow; learn as if you were to live forever.

First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win.

You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty.

The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.

Strength does not come from physical capacity. It comes from an indomitable will.

A man is but the product of his thoughts; what he thinks, he becomes.

Nobody can hurt me without my permission.

Where there is love there is life.

Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs, but not every man’s greed.

Freedom is not worth having if it does not include the freedom to make mistakes.

To believe in something, and not to live it, is dishonest.

It is unwise to be too sure of one’s own wisdom. It is healthy to be reminded that the strongest might weaken and the wisest might err.

The greatness of a nation can be judged by the way its animals are treated.

In a gentle way, you can shake the world.

Whatever you do will be insignificant, but it is very important that you do it.

A ‘No’ uttered from deepest conviction is better and greater than a ‘Yes’ merely uttered to please, or what is worse, to avoid trouble.

I like your Christ, I do not like your Christians. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ.

50 Important Words from The Hindu

Having good vocabulary gives edge in Ethics and Essay.

Words:- 

  1. scratchyRough; grating
  2. myriadA countless or extremely great number.-innumerable – countless – numberless – uncounted
  3. liberalgenerous – bounteous – lavish – bountiful – free
  4. connive -Secretly allow
  5. triagingAssign degrees of urgency to
  6. agrarian -agricultural – predial – land
  7. abundance -plenty – affluence – profusion – opulence – wealth
  8. profusion -abundance – plenty – affluence – exuberance – wealth
  9. bygone – past – last – former – departed – overpast – ancient
  10. stagnate -Cease developing; become inactive or dull.
  11. ratified -Sign or give formal consent to (a treaty, contract, or agreement), making it officially valid.
  12. filth -dirt – muck – impurity – grime – squalor – ordure
  13. hegemony -Leadership or dominance, esp. by one country or social group
  14. immolation -killing or offering as a sacrifice.
  15. symposium– A conference or meeting to discuss a particular subject
  16. frontiers– A line or border separating two countries.
  17. retract -Draw or pull
  18. protectorate– A state controlled and protected by another
  19. zenith -The highest point reached by a celestial or other object
  20. etymology -The study of the origin of words and the way in which their meanings have changed throughout history.
  21. ember -A small piece of burning or glowing coal or wood in a dying fire: “the flickering embers of nationalism”.
  22. unprecedented -unexampled – unparalleled – unheard-of
  23. foment-instigate – incite – provoke
  24. incendiary -(of a device or attack) Designed to cause fires:
  25. amalgam -mixture – mix – blend
  26. tortuous -winding – sinuous – devious – serpentine – crooked
  27. propel -impel – drive – move – push – actuate
  28. depose-testify – dismiss
  29. slayer -killer
  30. Erudite- characterized by great knowledge;
  31. Ardent expressive of, or characterized by intense feeling;passionate;Fervent
  32. abolition- the legal prohibition and ending of slavery.
  33. urged- to press, push, or hasten
  34. fade- to disappear
  35. Imposition- the laying on of something as a burden or obligation.
  36. euphoria- a feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being
  37. legitimacy-the state or quality of being legitimate.
  38. Tenure- the holding or possessing of anything
  39. profess-to lay claim to, often insincerely; pretend to
  40. abandonto give up; discontinue; withdraw from
  41. Eloquenthaving or exercising the power of fluent, forceful, and appropriate speech
  42. voraciousexceedingly eager or avid
  43. fragile -brittle – frail – breakable – delicate – tender – weak
  44. colossal – huge – enormous – immense – gigantic – tremendous
  45. potable -drinkable
  46. fiat -order – ordinance – decree – command – edict
  47. doggedly -with obstinate determination
  48. divulge -disclose – reveal – publish – betray – expose
  49. equity -justice – fairness – justness – impartiality
  50. abode -residence – habitation – dwelling – home – domicile

Internal Security of India

Internal security is the security of country within its borders.

  • Maintenance of peace and law and order.
  • Upholding sovereignty of country within its borders.
  • Responsibility of Police and state government and Ministry of Home affairs.

External Security is security against aggression by a foreign country.

  • Responsibility of armed forces and Ministry of Defense .

Four Kinds of threats to any state as per Kautilya: –

  •  Internal
  • External
  • Internally aided external
  • Externally aided internal

Due to fast globalization, modern communications, distinction between security threat is not possible. Now all types of security threats has to be seen through mix prism of above 4 types.

Attributes of Internal Security:-

  • Secure territorial integrity and internal sovereignty
  • Maintain domestic peace and law and order
  • Rule of law and equality before law
  • Absence of fear
  • Peaceful coexistence and communal harmony  

Understanding of Attribute of Internal Security :-

 

1. Territorial integrity is the principle under international law that nation-states should not attempt to promote secessionist movements or to promote border changes in other nation-states.

2. Sovereignty meaning holding supreme, independent authority over a region or state.

     Internal Sovereignty refers to the internal affairs of the state and the location of supreme power within it.

3. law and order :- a situation characterized by respect for and obedience to the rules of a society.

4. Communal Harmony refers to the harmony, acceptance and love among the people of various communities belonging to different castes, races and religion.

5. Communal Harmony is the most important pre-condition for feeling of Unity and National Integration in India

6. Equality Before law:-

  • Its Fundamental right.
  • It ensure the guarantees to every person the right to equality before law & equal protection of the laws .it is not only right of Indian citizens but also right of citizens .
  • Article 14 says “The state shall of India.” article 14 define no one is above the law.

Major challenges to Internal  security

  • International and domestic terrorism
  • J&K militancy and terrorism
  • Insurgency in Northeast
  • LWE – Left wing Extremism
  • Communalism
  • Caste and ethnic tension
  • Regionalism and Inter-state disputes
  • Cyber Crime and Cyber Security
  • Border Management
  • Coastal Security

Understanding of Definitions:-

 

Communalism

  • Attempts to construct religious or ethnic identity
  • Incite strife between people identified as different communities
  • To stimulate communal violence between those groups.
  • It derives from history, differences in beliefs, and tensions between the communities.

Regionalism

  • Theory or practice of regional rather than central systems of administration or economic, cultural, or political affiliation.
  • A linguistic feature peculiar to a particular region and not part of the standard language of a country. 

Cyber security

  • Cyber security is the body of technologies, processes and practices designed to protect networks, computers, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access.

Factors Responsible for Internal Security 

  1. Pre- Independence Issues :-
    1. Unfriendly neighbors and porous borders
    2. Poverty
    3. Unemployment
  1. Administrative failures :-
    1. Inequality and Inequitable growth
    2. Governance deficit 
  1. Partisan Politics :-
    1. Communal Divide
    2. Caste awareness and Caste tensions
  1. Governance Deficit :-
    1. Politics of language ethnicity sects and son of soil
    2. Poor Justice system
    3. Porous borders 
  1. Declared policy of Pakistan’s ISI ‘ to bleed India through a thousand Cuts.

Way Forward:-

  • Central and State government Co-ordination
  • Robust Intelligence
  • Robust Cyber Security Architecture – Theater of modern Warfare
  • Good Governance
  • Better Border Management

NATURAL VEGETATION In India

Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long time, so as to allow its individual species to adjust themselves to climate and soil conditions as fully as possible.

  • Himalayan heights are marked with temperate vegetation;
  • Western Ghats and the Andaman Nicobar Islands have tropical rain forests
  • Deltaic regions have tropical forests and mangroves;
  • Desert and semi desert areas of Rajasthan are known for cactii, a wide variety of bushes and thorny vegetation

On the basis of certain common features such as predominant vegetation type and climatic regions, Indian forests can be divided into the following groups

TYPES OF FORESTS

  • Tropical Evergreen and Semi-Evergreen forests
  • Tropical Deciduous forests
  • Tropical Thorn forests
  • Montane forests
  • Littoral and Swamp forests

Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen Forests

  • Western slope of the Western Ghats, hills of the northeastern region and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Warm and humid areas
  • Annual precipitation of over 200 cm
  • mean annual temperature above 22oC
  • Tropical evergreen forests are well stratified, with layers closer to the ground and are covered with shrubs and creepers, with short structured trees followed by tall variety of trees.
  • In these forests, trees reach great heights up to 60 m or above.
  • There is no definite time for trees to shed their leaves, flowering e.g. rosewood, mahogony, aini, ebony,fruition.

Semi evergreen forests

  • Found in the less rainy parts of these regions. Such forests have a mixture of evergreen and moist deciduous trees.
  • The under growing climbers provide an evergreen character to these forests.
  • Main species are white cedar, hollock and kail
  • British were aware of the economic value of the forests in India, hence, large scale exploitation of these forests was started. The structure of forests was also changed.
  • The oak forests in Garhwal and Kumaon were replaced by pine (chirs) which was needed to lay railway lines.
  • Forests were also cleared for introducing plantations of tea, rubber and coffee.
  • The British also used timber for construction activities as it acts as an insulator of heat.

 

Tropical Deciduous Forests

  • Most widespread forests in India (monsoon forests) – Rainfall- 70-200 cm.
  • Further divided into moist (200-100)and dry (70-100) deciduous.
  • Moist northeastern states along the foothills of Himalayas, eastern slopes of the Western Ghats and Orissa.
  • Teak, sal, shisham, hurra, mahua,amla, semul, kusum, and sandalwood
  • Dry Rainier areas of the Peninsula and the plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • In the higher rainfall regions of the Peninsular plateau and the northern Indian plain, these forests have a parkland landscape with open stretches in which teak and other trees interspersed with patches of grass are common.
  • As the dry season begins, the trees shed their leaves completely and the forest appears like a vast grassland with naked trees all around.
  • Tendu, palas, amaltas, bel, khair, axlewood, etc.
  • In the western and southern part of Rajasthan, vegetation cover is very scanty due to low rainfall and overgrazing.

Tropical Thorn Forests

  •  Rainfall less than 50 cm
  • Grasses and shrubs
  •  Semi-arid areas of south west Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Plants remain leafless for most part of the year and give an expression of scrub vegetation.
  • babool, ber, and wild date palm, khair, neem, khejri, palas, etc.
  • Tussocky grass grows upto a height of 2 m as the under growth.

Montane Forests –

  • Decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to a corresponding change in natural vegetation
  • Types- northern mountain forests and the southern mountain forests.
  • Himalayan ranges show a succession of vegetation from the tropical to the tundra, which change in with the altitude.

Deciduous forests are found in the foothills of the Himalayas.

  • 1,000-2,000 m – wet temperate type of forests
  • 1,500-1,750 m- pine forests, Chir Pine ,Deodar – construction activity. chinar and walnut –Kashmir handicrafts
  • 2,225-3,048 m – Blue pine and spruce
  • 3,000-4,000 m – Silver firs, junipers, pines, birch and rhododendrons

 

Littoral and Swamp Forests

  • About 70 per cent of this comprises areas under paddy cultivation.
  • Total area of wet land is 3.9 million hectares.
  • Two sites — Chilika Lake (Orissa) and Keoladeo National Park (Bharatpur) are protected as water-fowl habitats under the Convention of Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Convention).

Wetlands

The country’s wetlands have been grouped into eight categories-

  1. The reservoirs of the Deccan Plateau in the south together with the lagoons and other wetlands of the southern west coast;
  2. The vast saline expanses of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the Gulf of Kachchh;
  3. Freshwater lakes and reservoirs from Gujarat eastwards through Rajasthan (Keoladeo National Park) and Madhya Pradesh;
  4. The delta wetlands and lagoons of India’s east coast (Chilika Lake);
  5. The freshwater marshes of the Gangetic Plain; (vi) the floodplains of the Brahmaputra;
  6. The marshes and swamps in the hills of northeast India and the Himalayan foothills;
  7. The lakes and rivers of the montane region of Kashmir and Ladakh;
  8. The mangrove forest and other wetlands of the island arcs of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Mangroves

  • Mangroves grow along the coasts in the salt marshes, tidal creeks, mud flats and estuaries.
  • Crisscrossed by creeks of stagnant water and tidal flows, these forests give shelter to a wide variety of birds.
  • In India, the mangrove forests spread over 6,740 sq. km which is 7 per cent of the world’s mangrove forests.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Sunderbans of West Bengal, Mahanadi, the Godavari and the Krishna deltas

 

Miscellaneous Points:-

  • Transhumance tribes – Gujjars, the Bakarwals, the Bhotiyas and the Gaddis.
  • At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of the tundra vegetation.
  • Southern slopes of the Himalayas carry a thicker vegetation cover because of relatively higher precipitation than the drier north-facing slopes.
  • The southern mountain forests include the forests found in three distinct areas of Peninsular India viz; the Western Ghats, the Vindhyas and the Nilgiris.
  • Temperate forests are called Sholas in the Nilgiris, Anaimalai and Palani hills.
    Forest– magnolia, laurel, cinchona and wattle.

Political Science and International Relations Syllabus

 

PAPER – I

Political Theory and Indian Politics:

1. Political Theory: meaning and approaches.

2. Theories of the State: Liberal, Neoliberal, Marxist, Pluralist, Post-colonial and feminist.

3. Justice: Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.

4. Equality: Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.

5. Rights: Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; concept of Human Rights.

6. Democracy: Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy – representative, participatory and deliberative.

7. Concept of power, hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.

8. Political Ideologies: Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.

9. Indian Political Thought : Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist traditions; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Sri Aurobindo, M.K. Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar, M.N. Roy.

10. Western Political Thought: Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.

Indian Government and Politics:

1. Indian Nationalism:

(a) Political Strategies of India’s Freedom Struggle: Constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha, Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience; Militant and revolutionary movements, Peasant and workers’ movements.

(b) Perspectives on Indian National Movement: Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical humanist and Dalit.

2. Making of the Indian Constitution: Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives.

3. Salient Features of the Indian Constitution: The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine.

4. (a) Principal Organs of the Union Government: Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court.

(b) Principal Organs of the State Government: Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and High Courts.

5. Grassroots Democracy: Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Grass-root movements.

6. Statutory Institutions/Commissions: Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Finance Commission, Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women; National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward Classes Commission.

7. Federalism: Constitutional provisions; changing nature of center-state relations; segregationist tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.

8. Planning and Economic Development : Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; role of planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and agrarian relations; liberalization and economic reforms.

9. Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.

10. Party System: National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing socio- economic profile of Legislators.

11. Social Movements: Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s movements; environmentalist movements.

 

PAPER – II

Comparative Politics and International Relations

Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics:

 

1. Comparative Politics: Nature and major approaches; political economy and political sociology perspectives; limitations of the comparative method.

2. State in comparative perspective: Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and, advanced industrial and developing societies.

3. Politics of Representation and Participation: Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.

4. Globalization: Responses from developed and developing societies.

5. Approaches to the Study of International Relations: Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.

6. Key concepts in International Relations: National interest, Security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transnational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.

7. Changing International Political Order:

(a) Rise of super powers; strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and Cold War; nuclear threat;

(b) Non-aligned movement: Aims and achievements;

(c) Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.

8. Evolution of the International Economic System: From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.

9. United Nations: Envisaged role and actual record; specialized UN agencies-aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.

10. Regionalisation of World Politics: EU, ASEAN, APEC, SAARC, NAFTA.

11. Contemporary Global Concerns: Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice, terrorism, nuclear proliferation.

India and the World:

1. Indian Foreign Policy: Determinants of foreign policy; institutions of policy-making; continuity and change.

2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement: Different phases; current role.

3. India and South Asia:

(a) Regional Co-operation: SAARC – past performance and future prospects.

(b) South Asia as a Free Trade Area.

(c) India’s “Look East” policy.

(d) Impediments to regional co-operation: river water disputes; illegal cross-border migration; ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; border disputes.

4. India and the Global South: Relations with Africa and Latin America; leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.

5. India and the Global Centres of Power: USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.

6. India and the UN System: Role in UN Peace-keeping; demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.

7. India and the Nuclear Question: Changing perceptions and policy.

8. Recent developments in Indian Foreign policy: India’s position on the recent crisis in Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Israel; vision of a new world order.

CSE Mains General Studies Paper – IV

CSE Mains General Studies Paper – IV

Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude)

This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrityprobity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society.

Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered.

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathytolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.