There are 5 provisions under which Parliament can legislate on a subject included in state list: Article 249 if the Council of States has declared by resolution supported by not less than two thirds of the members present and voting that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that Parliament should make laws … Continue reading 5 provisions under which Parliament can legislate on a subject.
• Lays out certain ideals that form the basis of the kind of country that we as citizens aspire to live in. • Defines the nature of a country’s political system; plays a crucial role in laying out certain important guidelines that govern decision-making within these societies. • Provides a set of basic rules that … Continue reading Purpose and functions of a Constitution:
Right against Exploitation Art 23: Forced labor/ Traffic No forced labor - slavery - servitude No trafficking State can force for public interest conscription punishable Art 24: Child labor Punishable < 14 - no hazardous and non hazardous regulated by state The government had brought a new law to govern child labour, known as the … Continue reading Right against Exploitation
Right to Freedom Art 19(1) - Democratic rights Speech and expression Art 19(1)(a) and Art 21 - inalienable disjunct Express your view, right to listen, any communicable medium Express others view Right to know Press freedom Elect/reject candidate based on informed choices Dissent - criticize govt ITA 2000 - Sec 66A - chilling effect Defamation … Continue reading Right to Freedom
Right to Freedom of religion Art 25: P3 -Profess,Practice,Propagate Conscience - inner freedom Profess -declare openly Practice - rituals and use signs Propagate - spread but not force Opinion & belief - no state interference Conduct & practice - state can Art 26: Religious denomination Est. institutions for religion and charity Manage its affairs Right to property Administer its property … Continue reading Right to Freedom of religion
Right to equality Art 14 : Law Equal before law Negative English const Absence of any privileges Law is supreme authority - govt subjected to law Art 361 (exception for president and governor) Dicey No punishment unless law violated Every one equal before law without discrimination Law is the superior - const is superior in … Continue reading Right to equality
Cultural and Educational Rights Art 29: Minorities interest Protect identity Unity in diversity Majority and minority State can't deny admission in edu on grounds of religion, race, caste or language Art 30: Minority education Linguistics and religious minorities Can have schools of their own - state and ntl recognition BC not part of minority Right … Continue reading Cultural and Educational Rights