Everything about Brahmos


• It is a medium-range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarine, ships, aircraft or land.

• It is a joint venture between the Russia’s NPO Mashinostroeyenia and India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation.

• It has derived its name from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.


• It travels at the speed of Mach 2.8 to 3.0.

• The missile is first propelled by a solid propellant booster engine that takes it to supersonic speeds.

• After it separates, the missile is accelerated further to around three times the speed of sound (mach 3) in the cruise phase with a liquid ramjet.


• It has a flight range upto 290 Km.

• Recently, the range variants were upgraded from 290 km to 450 km after India joined the Missile Technology Control Regime.

Fire and Forget:

• It operates on ‘Fire and Forget Principle’, adopting varieties of flights on its way to the target.

• It takes a variety of trajectories while in flight and is equipped with advanced guidance technology.

• Its stealth features also give it a low radar signature.

Air-launched cruise missile (ALCM):

• It is a cruise missile that is launched from a military aircraft.

• Its current versions are typically standoff weapons which are used to attack predetermined land targets with conventional, nuclear or thermonuclear payloads.

SU-30 MKI:

• It is a twin-jet multirole air superiority fighter jet.

• It was developed by Russia’s Sukhoi and built under licence by India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for the Indian Air Force.

• It is a heavy, all-weather, long-range fighter jet.

• It has a maximum speed of 2 Mach with a single in flight range of 3,000 Km.

• It can carry a payload of 8,000 Kg upto a maximum altitude of 17 Km.

• Till date, Brahmos ALCM is the heaviest weapon to be deployed on the Su-30 MKI.

Completes cruise missile triad:

• The land and sea variants of Brahmos are already operational with the Indian Army and the Navy.

• The successful maiden test firing will significantly bolster the IAF’s air combat operations capability from stand-off ranges.

• The armed forces now have a multi-platform, multi-mission cruise missile that can be launched from land, sea and air.

• This completes the tactical cruise missile triad for India which is a world record.


How is atomic bomb different from hydrogen bomb?

How is atomic bomb different from hydrogen bomb?

  • A hydrogen bomb, also called a thermonuclear bomb or an H-bomb.
  • It is far more powerful than the relatively simple atomic weapons.
  • It uses a second stage of reactions to magnify the force of an atomic explosion.
  • The second stage is fusion.
  • Fusion is mashing hydrogen atoms together in the same process that fuels the sun.
  • When these relatively light atoms join together, they unleash neutrons in a wave of destructive energy.
  • A hydrogen weapon uses an initial nuclear fission explosion to create a tremendous pulse that compresses and fuses small amounts of deuterium and tritium, kinds of hydrogen, near the heart of the bomb.
  • The swarms of neutrons set free can ramp up the explosive chain reaction of a uranium layer wrapped around it, creating a blast far more devastating than uranium fission alone.

Nations having hydrogen bomb:

  • The United States tested a hydrogen bomb at Bikini Atoll in 1954 that was over 1,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945.
  • Britain, China, France and Russia have also created hydrogen bombs.
  • Other nations may also either have it or are working on it, despite a worldwide effort to contain such proliferation.



  • Dhruv has been indigenously designed and developed by the HAL, and is powered by the Shakti engine jointly developed with Turbomeca of France.
  • It is a twin engine, multi-role, multi-mission new generation helicopter.
  • It is superior to the other helicopters used by the Army such as Cheetah and Chetak, both of which have single engine.
  • It has been exported to several countries in the region.
  • As a part of military diplomacy, India has offered it to several friendly countries in the neighbourhood and South-East Asia.

Cyber attack – ransomware , NotPetya

  • It is a malicious software that blocks access to computers and data until a sum of money is paid. NotPetya is the second major global ransomware since WannaCry, which had infected about 3,00,000 computers across 200 countries in May. Similar to WannaCry, one of the means by which Petya spread was by exploiting the MS12-010 vulnerability, also known as EternalBlue. Microsoft had issued a security patch to fix it in March.
  • The Petya ransomware not only encrypts files, but also overwrites and encrypts the master boot record. It shuts down the system about an hour after the infection and asks for ransom on rebooting. Users will not be able to access the system till the infection is removed. The PC might be protected from the malware in case the user is able to disrupt the system reboot.
  • Ransomware is a piece of malicious software which takes control of your system and files. Upon taking over, it applies encryption on those files and asks for money for a key that can restore the files. The ransomware often scrambles file names and changes their extension.