Equatorial rainforest – around equator
- Amazon rainforest, Congo basin, and east indies
- Uniform weather through out the year
- Rains in the afternoons
- Double rainfall peaks coinciding with the equinoxes
- Canopy structure – layered trees
- Unfertile soil
- Abundance of species
- Difficult to penetrate the jungle
- Cloud Forests – relates to Selvas
- Hardwood trees – mahogany, rosewood, rubber, ebony etc.
- Major Tribal groups :
- Malaysia – Semang
- Sumatra – Kubus
- Borneo – Dayaks
- Congo Basin – Pygmies
- South America – Amazon Indians
- Evaporation exceeds precipitation
- Hot desert – around west coasts, around offshore trade winds zone, cold ocean currents influence, hot days, cold nights
- e.g.. Atacama desert, Sahara, great Australian desert, Mohave desert, Kalahari desert
- Mid latitude desert – continentalism e.g.. Gobi desert / rain shadow e.g. Patagonia desert
- Scanty rainfall
- Large roots, wide spread shallow roots
- Oil rich countries
- Camel dependent
- E.g. Dubai
- Major Tribal groups
- Western Sahara – Tuaregs
- Arabian Desert – Bedouins
- Kalahari – Bushmen
- Australia – Bindibus
Savannah or Sudan/ tropical grassland
- Africa – national geo shot
- Masai – cattle pastoralist – on the run – cattle as their god
- Hausa – settled cultivators
- Tall grasses and short trees a.k.a elephant grass
- Distinct weather – wet summer and Dry winter
- Llanos – Venezuela
- Campos – Brazil
- Dry, cold winter
- Wet and humid summer
- South west monsoon and retreating NE monsoon – seasonal reversal of winds
- Broad leaves deciduous trees
- Teak, sal, rosewood, bamboos, deodar
- Around east coasts, trade winds
- Burma teak famous, spices, tea and coffee plantations, sugar cane, bamboo trees
Warm Temperate Zone
Warm temperate – Mediterranean
- Med region, SFO, south Chile, south west Australia and Africa
- Influenced by westerlies and movement of ITCZ
- Hot summer and wet winter
- World’s orchard land
- Known for wines, orchids and grapes – Viticulture
- Sclerophyllous vegetation is best developed here
- Walnut, Figs, Chestnut, Almond, Cedar are found
- California – Chapparal
- Europe – Maquis
- South Africa – Fynbos
Steppe grassland – temperate grassland
- Prairie – America
- Pampas – Argentina
- Pustaz – Hungary
- Steppe – Russia
- Veld – South Africa
- Downs – Australia
- Canterbury – NZ
- Wheat and pastoral
- Short grasses – dairy industry, cheese
- Granaries of the world
- Major Tribal Groups
- Central Asia – Kirghiz
- North America – Red Indians
- South Africa – Hottentots
Eastern warm temperate – China type
- Gulf type – SE America – Florida, NC, SC, Indiana etc.. , south Japan
- natal type
- Influenced by monsoon
- Cotton, tobacco and corn in gulf
- Rice in South East China
- Affected by tropical cyclones and hurricanes
- Mulberry thrives the best in this region
Cool Temperate Zone
Cool temperate – British type – temperate deciduous
- Vancouver BC, Seattle areas, Britain
- Four seasons – winter, spring, summer and fall
- Deciduous trees
- Salmon fish
- Shed leaves
- Oak, Elm, maple, beech and birch are the trees found here
Temperate evergreen/ coniferous/ boreal/ taiga
- Around Southern Alaska, Canada, Siberia
- East west stretch – largest biome on the land
- Absent in southern hemisphere
- Pine, spruce, fir trees – coniferous trees
- Needle shaped trees
- Olympic national park, Banff national park etc..
- Soft wooded trees
- Wood and pulp industry – lumbering
Eastern cool temperate – Laurentian type
- NE America and north Japan
- Greatest fishing zones of the world
- Warm and cold current meet
- Have best technologies in fishing
- Absent in southern hemisphere – continent tapers down
- Non agri land
- Protein source of fish
- Currents meet, technology in fishing
- Around poles
- Largest wetlands of the world
- Northern Alaska, Northern Canada, Greenland and northern Russia
- Frozen desert
- Denali national park
- Permafrost – Permanently frozen sub soil
- Snow in winter, beautiful landscape in summer
- Bugyals in Himalayas
- Mosses, lichens, Rhododendrons
- largest biome
- most stable biome
- covers 75% of Earth’s surface
- provides majority of Earth’s food and oxygen
Asian Nature Conservation Foundation:
- It was established in 1997 as a charitable trust.
- It has its headquarters at the Innovation Centre office of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
- It is a small group of conservation scientists, planners, information managers and administrators working together to support the conservation of biological diversity in India.
- It is actively involved in the conservation of the Asian Elephant, considered to be a keystone species in the biologically rich forests of South and Southeast Asia.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon or naturally extracted oil into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity and is a form of pollution.
- Dispersants are chemicals that when applied to oil floating on the surface greatly increases the rate of dispersal and breakdown of the oil. Dispersants assist the natural process where the mechanical action of the water can break down oil into small droplets.
- Dispersants are categorised into:
Type 1: Hydrocarbon solvent-based dispersant used undiluted
Type 2: Concentrates, diluted 1:10 with water before use
Type 3: High efficacy concentrates used undiluted
- These are chemicals used to separate oil and water. They can be used with dispersants when the type of oil prevents chemical dispersion.
- Surface cleaners are chemicals that when applied to oil covered hard surfaces increase the rate of dispersal from the surface, aiding cleaning.
- Bioremediation accelerates the natural degradation process through adding nutrients, micro-organisms, or both.
- Oil Zapping is a bio-remediation technique involving the use of ‘oil zapping’ bacteria.
- The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) has developed the oil zapping bacteria.
- The Oil Zapping project was supported by the Department of Biotechnology (Government of India) and the Ministry of Science and Technology.
- There are five different bacterial strains that are immobilized and mixed with a carrier material such as powdered corncob. This mixture of five bacteria is called Oil Zapper.
- Oilzapper feeds on hydrocarbon compounds present in crude oil and the hazardous hydrocarbon waste generated by oil refineries, known as Oil Sludge and converts them into harmless CO2 and water.
- The Oilzapper is neatly packed into sterile polythene bags and sealed aseptically for safe transport. The shelf life of the product is three months at ambient temperature.
- Sorbents absorb oil and are usually in the form of powder, granules or beads.
- They are either absorbent (they take some liquid into themselves) or adsorbent (forms a layer on the surface of the oil) materials and can be synthetic or natural, packaged or loose.
- Degreasers are used for cleaning grease from machinery of ships and marine structures