Khadi and Freedom movement

Khadi and Freedom movement

  • Khadi owes its revival to the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi who saw it as a tool to become self-reliant and independent.
  • Britishers bought raw materials at cheaper rate from India and sold their costly finished products in India.
  • This unfavourable balance of trade was first brought to the mainstream by Dada Bhai Nairoji.
  •  Dada Bhai Naroji put forward the theory of “drain of wealth” in his book “ Poverty and Un-british rule in India”.
  • Later, the use of swadeshi products was promoted by extremists and it became an important agenda during Bengal partition movement in 1905.
  • To put an end to the drain of wealth, the Swadeshi products were encouraged and produced.
  • Khadi was then introduced in 1920 by INC at Nagpur session as a political weapon for giving concrete expression to the Swadeshi Spirit to boycott the foreign goods.
  • During India’s freedom struggle, Gandhi encouraged handloom weaving, spinned with Charkha and promoted khadi and also used it as a medium to spread the wave of nationalism at grass root level.
  • The movement rendered an opportunity to Indians to be self-reliant on cotton and to be free from clothes produced by foreign manufacturers.
  • The first Khadi Production Centre was established at Katiawad, Gujarat.

 

Chronology of events that contributed to the development of Khadi in India

  • In the early20s and 30s, various Boards and Associaions were set up for Khadi.
  • In 1946, Govt. of Madras sought the advice of Gandhiji and set up a Department for Khadi.
  • In 1948, Govt. of India recognized the role of Rural Cottage Industries in the Industrial Policy Resolution and soon included it in the DPSP of the Constitution in Article 43.
  • These ideas were elaborated in the First five-year Plan and the policy framework for setting up of a body for Khadi.
  • In 1953, All India Khadi and Village Industries Board (AIKVIB) were set up which later became a statutory body- Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).

Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)

  • It was set up in 1957.
  • Khadi is being promoted in India by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC), Ministry of MSME, Govt. of India.
  • Since then the commission has been:
  1. Planning and executing the development.
  2. Working towards promoting research in production techniques.
  3. Supplying raw material and tools to producers.
  4. Quality control and marketing of khadi products.
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Everything about Lala Lajpat Rai

Lala Lajpat Rai

Details :

  • Lala Lajpat Rai was one of the foremost leaders who fought against British rule in India.
  • He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari (Lion of the Punjab).
  • Lala Lajpat Rai was born in January 1865 and got martyrdom on November, 17, 1928.
  • Lala Lajpat Rai joined the Government College at Lahore in 1880 to study Law.
  • While in college he came in contact with patriots and joined the Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati.
  • He passed his Vakilship Examination in Second Division from Government College in 1885 and started his legal practice in Hissar.
  • Besides practicing, Lalaji collected funds for the Dayanand College, attended Arya Samaj functions and participated in Congress activities.
  • He was elected to the Hissar municipality as a member and later as secretary.
  • He was also associated with activities of Punjab National Bank and Lakshmi Insurance Company in their early stages.

Role In Freedom Struggle:

  • Lala Lajpat Rai was one of the three most prominent Hindu Nationalist members of the Indian National Congress,  part of the Lal-Bal-Pal trio.
  • They formed the extremist faction of the Indian National Congress. They believed in action instead of petition, propaganda strategy of moderates.
  • Lalaji actively participated in the struggle against partition of Bengal.
  • Along with Surendra Nath Banerjee, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurorbindo Ghosh, he galvanized Bengal and the nation in a vigorous campaign of Swadeshi.
  • Lajpat Rai was deported to Mandalay, Burma (now Myanmar), without trial on May 1907.
  • Lalaji believed that it was important for the national cause to organize propaganda in foreign countries to explain India’s position because the freedom struggle had taken a militant turn.
  • He left for Britain in April 1914 for this purpose. At this time First World War broke out and he was unable to return to India.
  • He went to USA to galvanize support for India. He founded the Indian Home League Society of America and wrote a book called “Young India”.
  • The book severely indicted British rule in India and was banned in Britain and India even before it was published.
  • He was able to return to India in 1920 after the end of World War. After his return, Lala Lajpat Rai led the Punjab protests against the Jalianwala Bagh Massacre and the Non-Cooperation Movement. He also became Congress President in 1920.
  •  In 1921, He founded Servants of the People Society, a non-profit welfare organisation, in Lahore, which shifted based to Delhi after partition, and has branches in many parts of India.
  • He disagreed with Gandhiji’s suspension of Non-Cooperation movement due to the Chauri-Chaura incident and formed the Congress Independence Party, which had a pro-Hindu slant.
  • Graduates of the National College, which he founded inside the Bradlaugh Hall at Lahore as an alternative to British institutions, included Bhagat Singh.

Lala Lajpat Rai’s writings:

  • The Story of My Deportation (1908)
  • Arya Samaj (1915)
  • The United States of America: A Hindu’s Impression (1916)
  • Young India (1916)
  • Unhappy India (1928)
  • England’s Debt to India (1917)

Death:

  • In 1928, British Government decided to send Simon Commission to India to discuss constitutional reforms.
  • The Commission had no Indian member and this greatly angered Indians
  • When the Commisssion came to India there were protests all over India. Lala Lajpat Rai himself led one such procession against Simon Commission.
  • While the procession was peaceful, British Government brutally lathicharged the procession.
  • Lala Lajpat Rai received severe head injuries and died on November17, 1928.

Aftermath:

  • Although Bhagat Singh did not witness the event, he decided to take revenge, and joined other revolutionaries- Shivaram Rajguru, Sukhdev Thapar and Chandrashekhar Azad, in a plot to kill Scott.
  • In a case of mistaken identity, Bhagat Singh shot John P. Saunders, an Assistant Superintendent of Police.
  • He was shot by Rajguru and Bhagat Singh while leaving the District Police Headquarters in Lahore on 17 December 1928.

Jyotiba Phule

  • Born: 11 April, 1827
  • Passed Away: 28 November, 1890
  • Originally Jyotirao’s family belonged to ‘mali’ caste, considered as inferior by the Brahmins.
  • Jyotiba Phule devoted his entire life for the liberation of untouchables from the exploitation of Brahmins.
  • He revolted against the tyranny of the upper castes.

 Contributions 

  • Jyotiba Phule was one of the prominent social reformers of the nineteenth century India.
  • He led the movement against the prevailing caste-restrictions in India.
  • He revolted against the domination of the Brahmins and for the rights of peasants and other low-caste fellow.
  • Jyotiba Phule was believed to be the first Hindu to start an orphanage for the unfortunate children.

 Movement

  • In 1848, Jyotirao was insulted at a wedding as he belonged to inferior caste and then he made up his mind to defy the prevailing caste-system and social restrictions.
  • He then started his campaign of serving the people of lower caste who were deprived of all their rights as human beings.
  • The orthodox Brahmins of the society blamed him for vitiating the norms and regulations of the society.
  • Jyotirao attacked the orthodox Brahmins and other upper castes and termed them as “hypocrites”.
  • He campaigned against the authoritarianism of the upper caste people. He urged the “peasants” and “proletariat” to defy the restrictions imposed upon them.
  • Jyotiba established a girls’ school and asked his wife to teach the girls in the school.
  • Jyotirao, later, opened two more schools for the girls and an indigenous school for the lower castes, especially the Mahars and Mangs.
  • Viewing the pathetic condition of widows and unfortunate children Jyotirao established an orphanage in 1854.

 Satya Shodhak Samaj 

  • Jyotirao blamed the Brahmins for framing the weird and inhuman laws. He concluded that the laws were made to suppress the “shudras” and rule over them.
  • In 1873, Jyotiba Phule formed the Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth).
  • The purpose of the organization was to liberate the people of lower-castes from the suppression of the Brahmins.

Navroz festival : Parsi People

  • It is a Parsi New Year festival.
  • While the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle Easterns celebrate the festival on March 21, the first day of the Zoroastrian calendar, in India there is another version of the festival that is followed according to the Shahanshahi calendar and falls during the later months of the year.
  • The dates change every year since the calendar doesn’t account for leap years.
  •  Also known as Pateti, Navroz will be celebrated on August 17th this year in India.
  • The festivities on this day symbolize happiness, harmony and amity for the Parsi community.
  • The time of the festival is decided in Iran and then it is passed on to the entire Zoroastrian population in the world.

Muziris project

  • Muziris is the largest heritage conservation project in India and is a Kerala government’s initiative involving renovation of ancient places of worship, old markets, forts and the construction of museums.
  • The ancient world’s greatest trading centre in the East, this legendary seaport traded in everything from spices to precious stones with the Greeks, Romans and the rest of the world.
  • The Muziris Heritage Project will revive that lost legacy to conserve and showcase a culture of 3000 years or more for posterity.
  • Once the doorway to India for varied cultures and races including Buddhists, Arabs, Chinese, Jews, Romans, Portuguese, Dutch and even the British, Muziris has stood witness to civilisations being born, wars being waged and history being written.

Indian National Anthem

Indian National Anthem Facts

​• Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem of India.

• The underlying message of Jana Gana Mana is pluralism. 

• Jana Gana Mana was written on 11 December 1911.

• It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress and again in January 1912 at the annual event of the Adi Brahmo Samaj.

• The song “Jana Gana Mana” was first published in January 1912, under the title ‘Bharat Vidhata’ in the Ratva bodhini Patrika edited by Tagore.

• The song was translated in English by Tagore in 1919 under the title ‘Morning song of India’.

• It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950.

• The song initially was largely unknown to the people, except to the readers of the Brahmo Samaj journal, Tattwabodhini Patrika, of which Tagore was the editor.

•  A formal rendition of the national anthem takes fifty-two seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally.

Why Quit India Movement (August Revolution)is most UnGandhian?

Why Quit India Movement (August Revolution)is most UnGandhian?

It was most militant and UnGandhian because of following reasons.

  • Movement was clear rebellion, least controlled and most spontaneous
  • Gandhi allowed use of arms in self-defense
  • Justified armed resistance against stronger and well-equipped aggressor
  • Called for Do or Die
  • Asked not to remain alive to see country in state of bondage of slavery
  • Held that nation survives when people are ready to die for nation
  • Refused to condemn violence by people rather justified as reaction to bigger violence
  • Congress asked not to bow heads and receive strokes but pull stick and defend.
  • Nehru clarified that there is no restriction on any sorts like previous restrictions.
  • Congress clarified that everyone is free to use his or her own weapon
  • Gandhi called it as last struggle of his life
  • Gandhi held that further delay in freedom in injurious and Humiliating
  • He also clarified that there’s no plan to call off movement
  • He even permitted people to take control of police-station whenever necessary.