Biofilms

Biofilms:

  • A biofilm is an assemblage of microbial cells that is irreversibly associated (not removed by gentle rinsing) with a surface and enclosed in a matrix of primarily polysaccharide material.
  • Van Leeuwenhoek, using his simple microscopes, first observed microorganisms on tooth surfaces and can be credited with the discovery of microbial biofilms.
  • Microorganisms that form biofilms include bacteria, fungi and protists.
  • Noncellular materials such as mineral crystals, corrosion particles, clay or silt particles, or blood components, depending on the environment in which the biofilm has developed, may also be found in the biofilm matrix.

Can form on many types of surfaces:

  • Biofilms may form on a wide variety of surfaces, including living tissues, indwelling medical devices (devices in the body like catheters, heart valves), industrial or potable water system piping, or natural aquatic systems.
  • As they attach to each other and to the surfaces, they are capable to act as barriers to antibiotics.

Biofilms Formation:

  • Biofilm formation begins when free-floating microorganisms such as bacteria come in contact with an appropriate surface and begin to put down roots.
  • This first step of attachment occurs when the microorganisms produce a gooey substance known as an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS).
  • An EPS is a network of sugars, proteins and nucleic acids (such as DNA).
  • It enables the microorganisms in a biofilm to stick together.
  • Attachment is followed by a period of growth.
  • Further layers of microorganisms and EPS build upon the first layers.
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Global Innovation Index (GII)

  • The Global Innovation Index (GII) aims to capture the multi-dimensional facets of innovation and provide the tools that can assist in tailoring policies to promote long-term output growth, improved productivity, and job growth.
  • The GII helps to create an environment in which innovation factors are continually evaluated.
  • The Global Innovation Index 2016 (GII), in its 9th edition this year, is co-published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, an agency of the United Nations).
  • The index was started in 2007.
  • The core of the GII Report consists of a ranking of world economies’ innovation capabilities and results.
  • India scored a major improvement in its Global Innovation Index ranking in 2016, moving up to the 66th place from 81 in 2015.
  • Among middle-income countries, India (25) came second after China (17) in innovation quality, overtaking Brazil (27).

Alexander Graham Bell

​Alexander Graham Bell

When one door closes another door opens; but we so often look so long and so regretfully upon the closed door, that we do not see the ones which open for us.

Concentrate all your thoughts upon the work at hand. The sun’s rays do not burn until brought to a focus.

Before anything else, preparation is the key to success.

Sometimes we stare so long at a door that is closing that we see too late the one that is open.

A man, as a general rule, owes very little to what he is born with – a man is what he makes of himself.

The most successful men in the end are those whose success is the result of steady accretion.

The nation that secures control of the air will ultimately control the world.

Man is an animal which, alone among the animals, refuses to be satisfied by the fulfilment of animal desires.