The Naga insurgency has been a major threat to India’s security and integrity and can destabilize multiple states in north-eastern India. Elaborate. Also discuss various measures taken by the governments in handling the issue.

Approach:

Introduce the issue of Naga insurgency.

Explain its impact on security of India as well as that in northeastern states.

Provide measures undertaken by Government especially Naga peace accord.

Conclude appropriately.

Model Answer :

Ever since Indian Independence, the Naga Insurgency has taken many forms, including the demands for secessionism to wanton violence. The Naga Insurgency at present is driven by demand for Independent Nation – Greater Nagaland or Nagalim.

Impact on India’s security:

Violence: Thousands of lives have been lost due to violence in the region.

Secessionism: It also influences other Secessionist movements like Kuki insurgents, Bodo rebels and ULFA (Assam), HNLC (Meghalaya), NLFT (Tripura) etc in many states

Collaboration with hostile nations – There has been international collaboration with hostile countries like China, Pakistan, and Myanmar.

Extortion industry is thriving leading to loss of confidence in law and order situation.

Impact on other NE states:

Those demanding Naga nation seek to assert claims to the Naga inhabited areas of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Manipur and even in Myanmar. The violence and secessionist movements influenced similar groups and tactics in other NE states, destabilizing them.

Measures taken by governments at various levels:

1. Security related measures:

oUAPA: Many militant/insurgent groups declared as terrorist organization under UAPA – Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

oAFSPA: Most of NE declared as ‘Disturbed Areas’ under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958.

oCAPF: Deployment of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs).

Surrender and Rehabilitation Policy: Onetime payment and vocational training.

2. Center’s assistance to States:

Assistance for additional battalions: Sanction of India Reserve (IR) battalions, setting up of Counter Insurgency and Anti Terrorism (CIAT) schools;

Scheme for Modernization of State Police Forces (MPF scheme).

3. Border Management:

Deployment of Assam Rifles along the Myanmar border and strengthening border fencing.

4. Development related measures:

Infrastructure creation- Road, Rail, Telecom, Power and Waterways sectors

Agriculture – Horticulture promotion, Organic Farming etc.

Employment – Capacity building, Tourism, Skills training and industrial development.

Act East Policy- to link ASEAN with our North East.

5. Attempts for political solution:

Tripartite Naga Accord signed in 2015

Greater autonomy and decentralization

Special provisions like VI Schedule, Article 371 C for Manipur, Hill Councils etc.

Naga Accord has given opportunity for peace and stability in region, which can be utilized for development so that people can be weaned away from insurgency and illegal activities. At the same time more clarity can be brought regarding Naga peace accord to allay fears of neighboring states.

In Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan is fighting a hybrid war, and Indian response should also be in the hybrid domain”. Discuss.

Approach:

Introduce with Hybrid conflict

Talk about how Pakistan indulges in regular and hybrid wars against India and India’s response

Discuss why India needs to engage in hybrid war and what it involves

Conclude appropriately

Model Answer :

Hybrid war is one fought through a combination of conventional, irregular (efforts to win legitimacy and influence over the populations), and asymmetric (for example, terrorism, insurgency, guerrilla warfare etc.) means. It can include the combination of special operations and conventional military forces, intelligence agents, political provocateurs, media representatives, economic intimidation, cyber-attacks, and proxies and surrogates, terrorist, and criminal elements.

Pakistan’s hybrid war against India:

For the last 70 years, India’s response to Pakistan’s efforts at direct war have been professional and effective (1947, 1965 etc).

As a result, Pakistan has indulged in a hybrid conflict with India which extends to multiple domains, including promotion of radical ideology, creation of alienation among people, intimidation, and importantly, maintaining financial conduits for the unimpeded flow of money into the conflict system. Their cause is being furthered by the separatists in India.

Need for India to engage in Hybrid war:

In this conflict, India’s approach has been defensive, reactive and tentative. Fighting the adversary in a hybrid conflict, like the one in Jammu & Kashmir, through the military route has been ineffective.

There is an increasing body of opinion in India that the response to Pakistan’s hybrid war in Kashmir should be through hybrid warfare.

Methodology:

There is a need of for the national strategy to incorporate all elements of national power i.e. intellectual, economic, intelligence, cyber capabilities, scientific, business, trade and diplomatic.

Hybrid warfare has a strong espionage element and India needs an aggressive intelligence posture with an expertise and specialists from diverse fields like technology, economy, finance, culture, arts and politics.

Indian security community needs to indulge in information warfare and adopt proactive ways of bringing information operations to the fore while dealing with hybrid conflict.

Agencies, led by NIA, have recently been successful in targeting the financial support to radicalism and terrorism in Kashmir.

India also needs to develop the ability to conduct covert strikes in Pakistan to take out high value terrorist targets.

Hybrid warfare is not a new strategy. Since times immemorial, such tactics have been the essential instrument of the statecraft. India also has the capabilities, but not the experience. To deal with an enemy like Pakistan, hybrid war is the need of the hour. To this end, fault-lines in Pakistan need to be identified and effectively utilised for our geo-political ends.

Steps to Tackle Maoism

Proactive policing

Security forces are no longer reactive.

Example of Gariaband region in Chhattisgarh:

  • When the Maoists decided to deepen their roots into Gariaband, the State government notified this division as a new district (in 2012). This gave a fillip to development work.
  • Many new police stations and security camps were set up to prevent any major Maoist attack.
  • The cadre strength of the Maoists has consequently reduced.

Example of Raigarh:

  • Police action in Raigarh district eventually forced the Maoists to abandon their plan of expansion.
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs, too, subsequently removed Raigarh from its Security Related Expenditure (SRE) scheme.

Example of central India:

  • When the Maoists decided to create a new zone in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh, the target districts were immediately put on alert, so as not to allow them to gain ground.
  • Security forces were redeployed to ensure better territorial command.

Better Inter-State coordination:

  • As the Chhattisgarh police have experience in tackling Maoists in Bastar, they are now coordinating with the bordering States to strengthen intelligence and ground presence.
  • Such coordinated proactive policing will dampen the Maoists’ plans.

2. Holistic Approach:

  • The Maoist problem is not merely a law and order issue.
  • A permanent solution lies in eliminating the root cause of the problem that led to the alienation of tribals in this area.
  • Improved connectivity and communication: The focus now is to build roads and install communication towers to increase administrative and political access of the tribals, and improve the reach of government schemes.
  • Enhanced income: The government has enhanced the support price of minor forest produce like imli (tamarind).
  • Financial inclusion: More bank branches have been opened to ensure financial inclusion.
  • Entertainment: All India Radio stations in the three southern districts of Bastar will now broadcast regional programmes to increase entertainment options.
  • Improved trade: And a new rail service in Bastar is set to throw open a new market for wooden artefacts and bell metal.

Engaging youth through education and employment:

Weaning away children from Maoists and towards education:

  • Maoists are providing combat training to children in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
  • Despite the Maoists not wanting their children to study and get government jobs, remarkable work has been done in the field of school education and skill development.
  • An educational hub and a livelihood centre in Dantewada district sprang up. Earlier, the hostel of the Ramakrishna Mission in Narainpur was the only place where children could get quality education.

Livelihood training:

  • Seeing its success, the government has now opened up livelihood centres, known as Livelihood Colleges, in all the districts.
  • If the youth are constructively engaged by the government, the recruitment of youth by the Maoists will slowly stop.

Role of civil society

  • The government’s rehabilitation policies have helped the surrendered cadres turn their lives around.
  • Indian democracy is strong enough to absorb even its adversaries if they abjure violence.
  • Loopholes in implementing government schemes must not be used as a tool to strengthen the hands of the Maoists.
  • Civil society must join hands with the government in realising the villagers’ right to development.

Conclusion:

  • The two-pronged policy of direct action by the security forces combined with development is showing results.
  • The government has already made a dent in most of the affected districts and is determined to check the expansion of Maoists.
  • The paradigm of proactive policing and holistic development should ensure more such significant results in the future.

Everything about Cyberwar?

What is Cyberwar?

  • Cyberwar is a form of war which takes places on computers and the Internet, through electronic means rather than physical ones.
  • With an increasing global reliance on technology for everything from managing national electrical grids to ordering supplies for troops, cyberwar is a method of attack which many nations are vulnerable to.
  • In cyberwar, people use technological means to launch a variety of attacks.
  • Some of these attacks take a very conventional form. Computers can be used, for example, for propaganda, espionage, and vandalism.
  • Denial of service attacks can be used to shut down websites, silencing the enemy and potentially disrupting their government and industry by creating a distraction.
  • Cyberwar can also be utilized to attack equipment and infrastructure, which is a major concern for heavily industrialized nations which rely on electronic systems for many tasks.

Challenges to India’s National Security:

  • India’s reliance on technology reflects from the fact that India is shifting gears by entering into facets of e-governance.
  • India has already brought sectors like income tax, passports” visa under the realm of e -governance.
  • Sectors like police and judiciary are to follow.
  • The travel sector is also heavily reliant on this.
  • Most of the Indian banks have gone on full-scale computerization.
  • This has also brought in concepts of e-commerce and e-banking.
  • The stock markets have also not remained immune.
  • To create havoc in the country these are lucrative targets to paralyze the economic and financial institutions.
  • The damage done can be catastrophic and irreversible.

Challenges and Concerns:

  • Some challenges and concerns are highlighted below :­
  • Lack of awareness and the culture of cyber security at individual as well as institutional level.
  • Lack of trained and qualified manpower to implement the counter measures.
  • Too many information security organisations which have become weak due to ‘turf wars’ or financial compulsions.
  • A weak IT Act which has became redundant due to non exploitation and age old cyber laws.
  • No e-mail account policy especially for the defence forces, police and the agency personnel.
  • Cyber attacks have come not only from terrorists but also from neighboring countries inimical to our National interests.

Cyber attack – ransomware , NotPetya

  • It is a malicious software that blocks access to computers and data until a sum of money is paid. NotPetya is the second major global ransomware since WannaCry, which had infected about 3,00,000 computers across 200 countries in May. Similar to WannaCry, one of the means by which Petya spread was by exploiting the MS12-010 vulnerability, also known as EternalBlue. Microsoft had issued a security patch to fix it in March.
  • The Petya ransomware not only encrypts files, but also overwrites and encrypts the master boot record. It shuts down the system about an hour after the infection and asks for ransom on rebooting. Users will not be able to access the system till the infection is removed. The PC might be protected from the malware in case the user is able to disrupt the system reboot.
  • Ransomware is a piece of malicious software which takes control of your system and files. Upon taking over, it applies encryption on those files and asks for money for a key that can restore the files. The ransomware often scrambles file names and changes their extension.