International Treaties fro Hazardous Substance Management

Hazardous Substance Management

To promote safe management and use of hazardous substance in order to avoid damage to the health and env.

International conventions

  • Basel convention – control the transboundary mvmt of hazardous waste
    • Non binding agreement
    • Reduce the movement of hazardous waste between nations
    • Prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed country
    • USA, UK dumping e-waste in India, Pak and China
  • Rotterdam convention – Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for certain chemicals and pests in intl trade
    • Legally binding
    • Shared responsibility in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals
    • Like using proper labelling, directions on safe handling etc.
  • Stockholm convention – Persistent Organic pollutants (POP)
    • Legally binding
    • Under aegis of UNEP
    • POPs are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bio accumulate through the food web and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment
  • Minamata convention on mercury 
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Nature Conservation – International Treaties

Nature Conservation

Under Biodiversity conservation scheme, there are two main subcomponents

  • Bio Diversity
  • Bio Safety

 Bio Diversity

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

  • Legally binding
  • Aichi target 
  • India enacted the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 to give effect to the provisions of CBD.
  • National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was created to implement the provisions of BDA, 2002.
    • Located at Chennai
    • Autonomous body
    • Statutory body
    • Regulatory body
    • Decentralized – national, state and local
  • Nagoya protocol 
    • Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS)
    • Adopted under the aegis of CBD
    • Legally binding

 

Bio Safety

  • Cartagena Bio safety protocol
    • Under the aegis of CBD
    • Legally binding
    • Safe transfer, handling and use of Living Modified Organisms (LMO) resulting from modern biotech that may have adverse effect
    • Seeks to protect the world from GMOs resulting from modern biotech.
    • Advanced Informed Agreement – procedure to LMOs across border

CITES ( Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)

  • CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
  • Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs.
  • It is an international agreement to which States (countries) adhere voluntarily. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level.