How is atomic bomb different from hydrogen bomb?

How is atomic bomb different from hydrogen bomb?

  • A hydrogen bomb, also called a thermonuclear bomb or an H-bomb.
  • It is far more powerful than the relatively simple atomic weapons.
  • It uses a second stage of reactions to magnify the force of an atomic explosion.
  • The second stage is fusion.
  • Fusion is mashing hydrogen atoms together in the same process that fuels the sun.
  • When these relatively light atoms join together, they unleash neutrons in a wave of destructive energy.
  • A hydrogen weapon uses an initial nuclear fission explosion to create a tremendous pulse that compresses and fuses small amounts of deuterium and tritium, kinds of hydrogen, near the heart of the bomb.
  • The swarms of neutrons set free can ramp up the explosive chain reaction of a uranium layer wrapped around it, creating a blast far more devastating than uranium fission alone.

Nations having hydrogen bomb:

  • The United States tested a hydrogen bomb at Bikini Atoll in 1954 that was over 1,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945.
  • Britain, China, France and Russia have also created hydrogen bombs.
  • Other nations may also either have it or are working on it, despite a worldwide effort to contain such proliferation.
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India Japan Strategic Relationship

Strategic partnership:

Defence ties

  • Both the countries have agreed to enhance exchanges between their forces with more bilateral exercises and exchanges in the field of technology at a time when India wants to increase domestic defence production.
  • The Armies of both nations will hold a joint exercise on anti-terrorism in 2018 for the first time.
  • The talks are on to include bilateral training between the two navies and Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) training to expand cooperation.
  • Both the countries seek to strengthen cooperation between their Air Forces.

Cooperation in Defence and technology

  • There will be collaboration between Acquisition, Technology and Logistic Agency (ATLA) and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for research in the areas of Unmanned Ground Vehicles and Robotics.

Malabar 2017

  • India-US-Japan successfully undertook this trilateral naval exercise in the Bay of Bengal. This is necessary to maintain freedom of navigation in the South China sea to counter Chinese hegemony.

Disaster relief

  • Japan has invited India to participate in a Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) exercise held by Japan Ground Self Defence Force as an observer.

Diplomacy

  • 2+2 dialogue between the Foreign Ministries and Defence ministries of both the nations will take place in 2018.

Infrastructure

  • Japan funds many road projects in the Northeast India to help bridge the gap between the strategically important Northeastern states. This would provide trade routes in the region and give it economic-push.
  • Bullet train: Japan is helping India in building bullet trains. It has invested $12 billion for India’s first bullet train from Ahmedabad to Mumbai.

Cooperation in Africa:

  • Japan and its banks are cooperating with India for investment in Africa. This is very important so as to counter China’s One Belt One Road (OBOR).

Bitcoin

  • Bitcoin is a digital currency that is not supported by any country’s government or central bank.
  • It can be traded for services or goods with sellers who accept bitcoins as payment.
  • Bitcoin was first  introduced in October 2008. It was invented by an unidentified programmer, or group of programmers, under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto.
  • The system is peer-to-peer (person to person using bitcoins) and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary (like Bank).
  • Bitcoin transactions are seen by the entire network within a few seconds which are verified by network nodes  and are usually recorded into Bitcoin’s world wide ledger (record of transactions) called the blockchain, in the next block.
  • Bitcoin isn’t owned by anyone. Anyone can use it, but there isn’t a single company that is in charge of it.
  • So, Bitcoin payments are impossible to block, and bitcoin wallets can’t be frozen (unlike the currency we use that government can regulate).
  • Unlike government issued money, that can be inflated at will (by increasing or decreasing the money supply), the supply of bitcoin is mathematically limited to twenty one million bitcoins, and that can never be changed.
  • Bitcoins are impossible to counterfeit (as they are encrypted, hence also called Crypto-currency). Bitcoin’s price is determined by the laws of supply and demand.

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966.
  • which is headquartered in Ortigas Center located in Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines, and maintains.
  • It promote social and economic development in Asia.
  • The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East or ECAFE) and non-regional developed countries.
  • From 31 members at its establishment, ADB now has 67 members, of which 48 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 outside.
  • The ADB was modeled closely on the World Bank, and has a similar weighted voting system where votes are distributed in proportion with members’ capital subscriptions.
  • At the end of 2014, Japan holds the largest proportion of shares at 15.7%. The United States holds 15.6%, China holds 6.5%, India holds 6.4%, and Australia holds 5.8%.