Prelims 2000

Tropic of Capricorn passes through which of the following countries?
1. Peru
2. Brazil
3. South Africa
4. Australia
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
A.
1, 2 and 3
B.
1, 2 and 4
C.
2, 3 and 4
D.
1, 3 and 4
Explanation :
The line passes through Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Namibia, Botswana,South Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar, Australia and French Polynesia, clipping New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and the Cook Islands

Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA)

What is the aim of the programme ‘PMGDISHA’?

(a) A programme for empowerment of rural destitute women by providing them source of livelihood.

(b) To make 6 Crore rural households digitally literate by March 2019.

(c) It aims to provide Digital education to the rural children in the age group of 7 14 years through select government schools and Anagnwadi.

(d) It aims to provide for financial assistance to the SC/ST non agricultural entrepreneurs from the 2500 select Gram Panchayats.

Ans : B

Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA):

One of the largest digital literacy programmes in the world.

The PMGDISHA being initiated under Digital India Programme would cover 6 crore households in rural areas to make them digitally literate by March 2019.

To ensure equitable geographical reach, each of the 250,000 Gram Panchayats would be expected to register an average of 200-300 candidates.

The implementation of the Scheme would be carried out under the overall supervision of Ministry of Electronics and IT in active collaboration with States/UTs through their designated State Implementing Agencies, District e-Governance Society (DeGS), etc.

This would empower the citizens by providing them access to information, knowledge and skills for operating computers / digital access devices.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)

Consider the following statements with respect to Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY):

1. It intends to recognize the knowledge acquired and skills equipped by the participants through certification.

2. Persons from both organized and unorganized sectors can join the scheme.

3. It is being implemented by National Skill Development Corporation.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans: D

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) is the flagship scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE). It is a flagship programme that intends to recognize the knowledge acquired and skills equipped by the participants by certification. Apart from this objective of this Skill Certification Scheme is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood. Individuals with prior learning experience or skills will also be assessed and certified under Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). Under this Scheme, Training and Assessment fees are completely paid by the Government. The scheme is being implemented by National Skill Development Corporation. Hence, statements 1 and 3 are correct.

This Scheme is applicable to any candidate of Indian nationality who is an unemployed youth or, school/college dropouts, possesses an Aadhaar card and a bank account. It also included those who are in the organized and unorganized sectors. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

Brief about Bio-fortification

Consider the following statements

1.     Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through agronomic practices, conventional plant breeding, or modern biotechnology.

2.     Conventional fortification differs from Biofortification in that conventional fortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during processing of the crops.

Which of the given statement/s is/are correct?

a     1 only

b     2 only

c      Both

d     None

Explanation:

Solution (a)

Fortification is the practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, i.e. vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) in a food, so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health.

Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through agronomic practices, conventional plant breeding, or modern biotechnology. Biofortification differs from conventional fortification in that biofortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during processing of the crops. Biofortification may therefore present a way to reach populations where supplementation and conventional fortification activities may be difficult to implement and/or limited.

Examples of biofortification projects include:

·      iron-biofortification of rice, beans, sweet potato, cassava and legumes;

·      zinc-biofortification of wheat, rice, beans, sweet potato and maize;

·      provitamin A carotenoid-biofortification of sweet potato, maize and cassava;

·      amino acid and protein-biofortification of sourghum and cassava.

Prelims- Q30. Consider the following statements:

Q30. Consider the following statements:

1. The image formed by a plane mirror is always virtual and erect.

2. An image formed by a convex mirror is always virtual, erect and diminished.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

A. 1 only

B. 2 only

C. Both 1 and 2

D. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: C

Exp: The image formed by a plane mirror is always virtual (meaning that the light rays do not actually come from the image), upright, and of the same shape and size as the object it is reflecting. A virtual image is a copy of an object formed at the location from which the light rays appear to come. The convex mirrors only produce virtual images. The image of an object is found to be upright and reduced in size. Only a concave mirror is capable of producing a real image and this only occurs if the object is located a distance greater than a focal length from the mirror’s surface.

Quiz- Q26. Which of the following statements regarding Mughal Architecture is/are correct?

Q26. Which of the following statements regarding Mughal Architecture is/are correct? 1. The Chahar Bagh system in the Mughal Architecture was first introduced by Babur in India.

2. The Pishtaq or Central Towering Dome became one of the most important aspects of Mughal Architecture.

3. Humayun’s Tomb was built in the tradition known as ‘HashtBihisht’.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A. 1 only

B. 2 and 3 only

C. 1 and 3 only

D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: In his autobiography, Babur described his interest in planning and laying out formal gardens, placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels. These gardens were called Chahar Bagh, four gardens, because of their symmetrical division into quarters. Beginning with Akbar, some of the most beautiful chaharbaghs were constructed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan in Kashmir, Agra and Delhi.

Statement 2 correct: The Central Towering Dome and the Tall Gateway (pishtaq) became important aspects of Mughal architecture, first visible in Humayun’s Tomb.

Statement 3 correct: Humayun’s Tomb was placed at the centre of a huge formal chaharbagh and built in tradition known as “eight paradises” or hasht-bihisht – a central hall surrounded by eight rooms. The building was constructed with red sandstone, edged with white marble.

Q21. Which of the following embellishments have been used for the interior and exterior surfaces of Taj Mahal?

Q21. Which of the following embellishments have been used for the interior and exterior surfaces of Taj Mahal?

1. Stone carvings in high and low relief on the walls.
2. Delicate carving of marble into jalis and graceful volute
3. Creation of arabesques with pietra dura
4. Art of calligraphy with the inlay of jasper to write Quranic verses.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 1, 2 and 4 only
D. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: D

Exp: All the statements are true as four types of embellishments have been used with great effect for the interior and exterior surfaces of Taj Mahal.

1. 2. 3. 4. Stone carvings in high and low relief on the walls, The delicate carving of marble into jalis and graceful volutes (spiral ornament on the pillar), The creation of arabesques with pietra dura (yellow marble, jade and jasper) on walls and tombstones and geometric designs with tessellation. The art of calligraphy is used with the inlay of jasper in white marble to write Quranic verses. Calligraphy provided a decorative element on the walls and a continuous connection with the Almighty.