Prelims 1234

Defence Research and Development Organisation has recently developed ‘Muntra’. Which refers to which of the following?
A.
An anti-missile tank
B.
A radar
C.
A surveillance system
D.
An unmanned tank.
Explanation :
Muntra is the unmanned tank, has three variants – surveillance, mine detection and reconnaissance in areas with nuclear and bio threats. It is likely to be used in Naxal-hit areas.
Muntra-S has been developed for unmanned surveillance missions, whereas Muntra-M is built for detecting mines. Muntra-N, on the other hand, will be deployed in areas where nuclear radiation or bio weapon risk is high.
The vehicle has been tested. Its surveillance radar, which has an integrated camera can be used to spy on ground target 15km away

PRELIMS-1

Consider the following statements:
1. Decomposition of dead material and formation of complex organic matter is called humification.
2. Break down of organic matter and subsequent release of nutrients into the soil is called mineralization.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
Both 1 and 2
D.
None of these
Explanation :
Successive decomposition of dead material and modified organic matter results in the formation of a more complex organic matter called humus. This process is called humification. Humus affects soil properties.
Soil organisms, including micro-organisms, use soil organic matter as food. As they break down the organic matter, any excess nutrients (N, P and S) are released into the soil in forms that plants can use. This release process is called mineralization. Hence, both the statements are correct

Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA)

What is the aim of the programme ‘PMGDISHA’?

(a) A programme for empowerment of rural destitute women by providing them source of livelihood.

(b) To make 6 Crore rural households digitally literate by March 2019.

(c) It aims to provide Digital education to the rural children in the age group of 7 14 years through select government schools and Anagnwadi.

(d) It aims to provide for financial assistance to the SC/ST non agricultural entrepreneurs from the 2500 select Gram Panchayats.

Ans : B

Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA):

One of the largest digital literacy programmes in the world.

The PMGDISHA being initiated under Digital India Programme would cover 6 crore households in rural areas to make them digitally literate by March 2019.

To ensure equitable geographical reach, each of the 250,000 Gram Panchayats would be expected to register an average of 200-300 candidates.

The implementation of the Scheme would be carried out under the overall supervision of Ministry of Electronics and IT in active collaboration with States/UTs through their designated State Implementing Agencies, District e-Governance Society (DeGS), etc.

This would empower the citizens by providing them access to information, knowledge and skills for operating computers / digital access devices.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)

Consider the following statements with respect to Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY):

1. It intends to recognize the knowledge acquired and skills equipped by the participants through certification.

2. Persons from both organized and unorganized sectors can join the scheme.

3. It is being implemented by National Skill Development Corporation.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans: D

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) is the flagship scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE). It is a flagship programme that intends to recognize the knowledge acquired and skills equipped by the participants by certification. Apart from this objective of this Skill Certification Scheme is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood. Individuals with prior learning experience or skills will also be assessed and certified under Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). Under this Scheme, Training and Assessment fees are completely paid by the Government. The scheme is being implemented by National Skill Development Corporation. Hence, statements 1 and 3 are correct.

This Scheme is applicable to any candidate of Indian nationality who is an unemployed youth or, school/college dropouts, possesses an Aadhaar card and a bank account. It also included those who are in the organized and unorganized sectors. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

Brief about Bio-fortification

Consider the following statements

1.     Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through agronomic practices, conventional plant breeding, or modern biotechnology.

2.     Conventional fortification differs from Biofortification in that conventional fortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during processing of the crops.

Which of the given statement/s is/are correct?

a     1 only

b     2 only

c      Both

d     None

Explanation:

Solution (a)

Fortification is the practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, i.e. vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) in a food, so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health.

Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through agronomic practices, conventional plant breeding, or modern biotechnology. Biofortification differs from conventional fortification in that biofortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during processing of the crops. Biofortification may therefore present a way to reach populations where supplementation and conventional fortification activities may be difficult to implement and/or limited.

Examples of biofortification projects include:

·      iron-biofortification of rice, beans, sweet potato, cassava and legumes;

·      zinc-biofortification of wheat, rice, beans, sweet potato and maize;

·      provitamin A carotenoid-biofortification of sweet potato, maize and cassava;

·      amino acid and protein-biofortification of sourghum and cassava.

Q33. Which of the following statement(s) is/are true about Tawarikh?

1. These are the “histories”, written in Persian language.
2. The authors of Tawarikh were learned men who were secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers.
3. These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social order based on birth right and gender distinctions.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: Although inscriptions, coins and architecture provide a lot of information about Delhi sultanate, especially valuable are “histories”, tarikh (singular)/ tawarikh (plural), written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans. Statement 2 is correct: The authors of tawarikh were learned men: secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers, who both recounted events and advised rulers on governance, emphasizing the importance of just rule. Statement 3 is correct: The authors of tawarikh lived in cities (mainly Delhi) and hardly ever in villages. They often wrote their histories for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards. These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social order based on birth right and gender distinctions.

Q33. Which of the following statement(s) is/are true about Tawarikh?

1. These are the “histories”, written in Persian language.
2. The authors of Tawarikh were learned men who were secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers.
3. These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social order based on birth right and gender distinctions.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: Although inscriptions, coins and architecture provide a lot of information about Delhi sultanate, especially valuable are “histories”, tarikh (singular)/ tawarikh (plural), written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans. Statement 2 is correct: The authors of tawarikh were learned men: secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers, who both recounted events and advised rulers on governance, emphasizing the importance of just rule. Statement 3 is correct: The authors of tawarikh lived in cities (mainly Delhi) and hardly ever in villages. They often wrote their histories for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards. These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social order based on birth right and gender distinctions.

Q32. Consider the following statements regarding the Speaker of the Lok Sabha:

1. He prorogues the House in the absence of quorum.
2. He presides over a joint sitting of the Houses, addressed by the President.
3. He decides whether a bill is a Money bill or not and his decision in this regard is final.
4. He never votes in the House, to maintain his impartiality.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A. 1, 2 and 3 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 1, 3 and 4 only
D. 3 only

Answer: D

Exp: The options 1, 2, and 4 are incorrect.
As the Presiding Officer of the House, the Speaker has power to adjourn (not prorogue, as it is the President who prorogues the Houses) the sitting until there is quorum (The minimum number of members of the House of Parliament required to be present for a parliamentary proceeding to start is called Quorum, which is not less than 1/10 of the total strength of the House).
The Speaker presides over the joint sitting, which is summoned by the President to settle the deadlock between the Houses of Parliament. However, when the President addresses the House in a joint sitting, he himself presides it over, not the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Even though the Speaker of the Lok Sabha does not vote in the first instance, he can still exercise his vote in order to resolve a deadlock, thus the Speaker has a casting vote. This makes the position of the Speaker impartial.

Q32. Consider the following statements regarding the Speaker of the Lok Sabha:

1. He prorogues the House in the absence of quorum.
2. He presides over a joint sitting of the Houses, addressed by the President.
3. He decides whether a bill is a Money bill or not and his decision in this regard is final.
4. He never votes in the House, to maintain his impartiality.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A. 1, 2 and 3 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 1, 3 and 4 only
D. 3 only

Answer: D

Exp: The options 1, 2, and 4 are incorrect.
As the Presiding Officer of the House, the Speaker has power to adjourn (not prorogue, as it is the President who prorogues the Houses) the sitting until there is quorum (The minimum number of members of the House of Parliament required to be present for a parliamentary proceeding to start is called Quorum, which is not less than 1/10 of the total strength of the House).
The Speaker presides over the joint sitting, which is summoned by the President to settle the deadlock between the Houses of Parliament. However, when the President addresses the House in a joint sitting, he himself presides it over, not the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Even though the Speaker of the Lok Sabha does not vote in the first instance, he can still exercise his vote in order to resolve a deadlock, thus the Speaker has a casting vote. This makes the position of the Speaker impartial.