It could refer to the following:
- Coronal mass ejection: Corona, the outer solar atmosphere, is structured by strong magnetic fields. Where these fields are closed, often above sunspot groups, the confined solar atmosphere can suddenly and violently release bubbles of gas and magnetic fields called coronal mass ejections.
- Solar flares: These are intense burst of radiations coming from the release of magnetic energy associated with sun spots.
- (Sun spots: These are the dark areas on the solar surface, contain strong magnetic fields that are constantly shifting. They are as large as the Earth. Sunspots form and dissipate over periods of days or weeks.)
Relationship of solar storms to magnetic shifts on Earth:
- The solar storms contain large amounts of charged particles and radiation.
- When they hit the Earth’s upper atmosphere, they produce the spectacular displays of the polar lights over the Arctic.
- This is the region with the most geomagnetic disruption on Earth.
- This way, the original magnetic field of the Earth gets distorted and this results in magnetic shifts.
- The most powerful storms can also damage communications systems and satellites.
- They can also impact the navigating abilities of birds and bees.
How will NSG membership help India?
Clean energy push:
- India is a growing country with massive energy needs.
- It has set for itself an ambitious goal of sourcing 40% of its power from non-fossil sources and here is where nuclear energy comes into play.
- India will need latest technology and NSG membership will come in handy.
- Though it got a one-time NSG waiver in 2008, the country needs constant access to global markets and a stable trading framework.
- Being a member of the NSG will also mean that India will have far greater access to uranium than it does currently under its 2008 agreement with the US. For example, Namibia is the fourth-largest producer of uranium and it agreed to sell the nuclear fuel to India in 2009.
- However, that hasn’t happened, as Namibia has since cited a 2009 African version of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Pelindaba Treaty, which essentially controls the supply of uranium from Africa to the rest of the world.
- If India joins the NSG, such reservations from Namibia are expected to melt away.
It helps domestic firms:
- A place on the nuclear trading table will help Indian companies such as the Walchandnar Industries Limited (WIL) and L&T to expand business.
- India has a robust indigenous nuclear industry that worked mostly in isolation as international sanctions were slapped every time a nuclear test was conducted.
- An NSG membership will make these companies comply with international norms and make it easier for them to ply their trade abroad.
Make in India:
- New Delhi and Moscow have announced a plan to build reactors in India to sell them to other countries, a move expected to give a push to the Modi government’s Make in India initiative.
- It will not only generate jobs but also help in technology development.
- As an NSG member, India will be better placed to implement the initiative.
End of the nuclear winter:
- One of the objectives of the 2008 nuclear deal was that the US would help India get into export-control regimes such as the NSG, the MTCR (missile technology control regime), Australia Group and Wassenar Arrangement.
- As a member of these groupings, India will have access to defence, space and nuclear technologies.
- The MTCR is done, of the remaining, the NSG is most crucial.
- Admission to the MTCR will open the way for India to buy high-end missile technology and surveillance drones such as Predator.
Hazardous Substance Management
To promote safe management and use of hazardous substance in order to avoid damage to the health and env.
- Basel convention – control the transboundary mvmt of hazardous waste
- Non binding agreement
- Reduce the movement of hazardous waste between nations
- Prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed country
- USA, UK dumping e-waste in India, Pak and China
- Rotterdam convention – Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for certain chemicals and pests in intl trade
- Legally binding
- Shared responsibility in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals
- Like using proper labelling, directions on safe handling etc.
- Stockholm convention – Persistent Organic pollutants (POP)
- Legally binding
- Under aegis of UNEP
- POPs are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bio accumulate through the food web and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment
- Minamata convention on mercury