Steps to Tackle Maoism

Proactive policing

Security forces are no longer reactive.

Example of Gariaband region in Chhattisgarh:

  • When the Maoists decided to deepen their roots into Gariaband, the State government notified this division as a new district (in 2012). This gave a fillip to development work.
  • Many new police stations and security camps were set up to prevent any major Maoist attack.
  • The cadre strength of the Maoists has consequently reduced.

Example of Raigarh:

  • Police action in Raigarh district eventually forced the Maoists to abandon their plan of expansion.
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs, too, subsequently removed Raigarh from its Security Related Expenditure (SRE) scheme.

Example of central India:

  • When the Maoists decided to create a new zone in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh, the target districts were immediately put on alert, so as not to allow them to gain ground.
  • Security forces were redeployed to ensure better territorial command.

Better Inter-State coordination:

  • As the Chhattisgarh police have experience in tackling Maoists in Bastar, they are now coordinating with the bordering States to strengthen intelligence and ground presence.
  • Such coordinated proactive policing will dampen the Maoists’ plans.

2. Holistic Approach:

  • The Maoist problem is not merely a law and order issue.
  • A permanent solution lies in eliminating the root cause of the problem that led to the alienation of tribals in this area.
  • Improved connectivity and communication: The focus now is to build roads and install communication towers to increase administrative and political access of the tribals, and improve the reach of government schemes.
  • Enhanced income: The government has enhanced the support price of minor forest produce like imli (tamarind).
  • Financial inclusion: More bank branches have been opened to ensure financial inclusion.
  • Entertainment: All India Radio stations in the three southern districts of Bastar will now broadcast regional programmes to increase entertainment options.
  • Improved trade: And a new rail service in Bastar is set to throw open a new market for wooden artefacts and bell metal.

Engaging youth through education and employment:

Weaning away children from Maoists and towards education:

  • Maoists are providing combat training to children in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
  • Despite the Maoists not wanting their children to study and get government jobs, remarkable work has been done in the field of school education and skill development.
  • An educational hub and a livelihood centre in Dantewada district sprang up. Earlier, the hostel of the Ramakrishna Mission in Narainpur was the only place where children could get quality education.

Livelihood training:

  • Seeing its success, the government has now opened up livelihood centres, known as Livelihood Colleges, in all the districts.
  • If the youth are constructively engaged by the government, the recruitment of youth by the Maoists will slowly stop.

Role of civil society

  • The government’s rehabilitation policies have helped the surrendered cadres turn their lives around.
  • Indian democracy is strong enough to absorb even its adversaries if they abjure violence.
  • Loopholes in implementing government schemes must not be used as a tool to strengthen the hands of the Maoists.
  • Civil society must join hands with the government in realising the villagers’ right to development.

Conclusion:

  • The two-pronged policy of direct action by the security forces combined with development is showing results.
  • The government has already made a dent in most of the affected districts and is determined to check the expansion of Maoists.
  • The paradigm of proactive policing and holistic development should ensure more such significant results in the future.

Internal Security of India

Internal security is the security of country within its borders.

  • Maintenance of peace and law and order.
  • Upholding sovereignty of country within its borders.
  • Responsibility of Police and state government and Ministry of Home affairs.

External Security is security against aggression by a foreign country.

  • Responsibility of armed forces and Ministry of Defense .

Four Kinds of threats to any state as per Kautilya: –

  •  Internal
  • External
  • Internally aided external
  • Externally aided internal

Due to fast globalization, modern communications, distinction between security threat is not possible. Now all types of security threats has to be seen through mix prism of above 4 types.

Attributes of Internal Security:-

  • Secure territorial integrity and internal sovereignty
  • Maintain domestic peace and law and order
  • Rule of law and equality before law
  • Absence of fear
  • Peaceful coexistence and communal harmony  

Understanding of Attribute of Internal Security :-

 

1. Territorial integrity is the principle under international law that nation-states should not attempt to promote secessionist movements or to promote border changes in other nation-states.

2. Sovereignty meaning holding supreme, independent authority over a region or state.

     Internal Sovereignty refers to the internal affairs of the state and the location of supreme power within it.

3. law and order :- a situation characterized by respect for and obedience to the rules of a society.

4. Communal Harmony refers to the harmony, acceptance and love among the people of various communities belonging to different castes, races and religion.

5. Communal Harmony is the most important pre-condition for feeling of Unity and National Integration in India

6. Equality Before law:-

  • Its Fundamental right.
  • It ensure the guarantees to every person the right to equality before law & equal protection of the laws .it is not only right of Indian citizens but also right of citizens .
  • Article 14 says “The state shall of India.” article 14 define no one is above the law.

Major challenges to Internal  security

  • International and domestic terrorism
  • J&K militancy and terrorism
  • Insurgency in Northeast
  • LWE – Left wing Extremism
  • Communalism
  • Caste and ethnic tension
  • Regionalism and Inter-state disputes
  • Cyber Crime and Cyber Security
  • Border Management
  • Coastal Security

Understanding of Definitions:-

 

Communalism

  • Attempts to construct religious or ethnic identity
  • Incite strife between people identified as different communities
  • To stimulate communal violence between those groups.
  • It derives from history, differences in beliefs, and tensions between the communities.

Regionalism

  • Theory or practice of regional rather than central systems of administration or economic, cultural, or political affiliation.
  • A linguistic feature peculiar to a particular region and not part of the standard language of a country. 

Cyber security

  • Cyber security is the body of technologies, processes and practices designed to protect networks, computers, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access.

Factors Responsible for Internal Security 

  1. Pre- Independence Issues :-
    1. Unfriendly neighbors and porous borders
    2. Poverty
    3. Unemployment
  1. Administrative failures :-
    1. Inequality and Inequitable growth
    2. Governance deficit 
  1. Partisan Politics :-
    1. Communal Divide
    2. Caste awareness and Caste tensions
  1. Governance Deficit :-
    1. Politics of language ethnicity sects and son of soil
    2. Poor Justice system
    3. Porous borders 
  1. Declared policy of Pakistan’s ISI ‘ to bleed India through a thousand Cuts.

Way Forward:-

  • Central and State government Co-ordination
  • Robust Intelligence
  • Robust Cyber Security Architecture – Theater of modern Warfare
  • Good Governance
  • Better Border Management

UPSC CSE Mains General Studies Paper – III

CSE Mains General Studies Paper – III
(Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)

a. Economic Development

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.

b. Agriculture 

  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.

c. Infrastructure

  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, etc.
  • Investment models.

Technology

  • Science and Technology – developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

Bio diversity, Environment

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

 Disaster Management

  • Disaster and disaster management.

Security

  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.