The basis of the statement lies in two elements: firstly, that it is possible to
change behavior but very difficult to change attitudes; secondly, that as one ages,attitudes become more rigid and difficult to change. Thus, the earlier we introduce interventions to correct or improve behaviours and attitudes, the greater the chances of a meaningful impact.
With regard to selecting an individual for pubic office, this emphasizes the
importance of the recruitment and training programs. The lower the age at entry, the more the possibility that the interventions will have the desired impact since it becomes easier to training the individual, with minimal resistance.
Similarly, the recruitment policy must ensure that the selected individuals are
genuinely pubic-spirited. This would ensure that their acceptance of the
organizational ethos is greater and attitudinal resistance is minimal.
- The program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts.
- Crediting subsidies directly into bank accounts help reduce leakages, delays, etc.
- DBT has now extended to most of the government schemes.
DBT has two components:
- Subsidy: When a government meets a part of the cost of providing a good or service to a beneficiary.
- Income transfer: When a government provides income support to a beneficiary.
- This is a pure transfer payment unrelated to the cost of providing any good or service.
Pros and Cons of DBT
- Better targeting of the beneficiary: In case of physical delivery of subsided products there are numerous reports of leakages, diversion of supplies, black marketing etc.
- By the use of DBT there is an assured transfer of the subsidy to the beneficiary.
- Also the problems like product adulteration, delay in supplies are eliminated.
- There is no need to have an elaborate administrative apparatus maintained at huge cost to manage the rationing of subsidized commodities.
- DBT brings in transparency and efficiency, and enables beneficiaries to get their entitlements directly to them without any delay.
- Direct transfer increases the circulation of money that will help in increasing the demand in the economy. Thus, keeping the growth cycle viable.
- DBT is dependent on the banking system, which is backbone of the system.
- Hence, anyone without a bank account will not be able to avail subsidies.
- In India, we still have the rural pockets where bank facilities has not reached yet.
- Now, the government in its move to provide universal financial inclusion is taking the initiative to provide each household with at least one bank account under Jan Dhan Yojna. Linking of the two systems i.e. DBT and financial inclusion is now actively pursued.
- The Direct Benefit transfer of LPG (DBTL) scheme is PAHAL.
- Consumers who wish to join the scheme will have to either link their Aadhaar number into their bank account.
- DBTL is designed to ensure that the benefit meant for the genuine domestic customer reaches them directly and is not diverted.
what are Smart Cities?
- A ‘smart city’ is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability.
- It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents.
- There are many technological platforms involved, including but not limited to automated sensor networks and data centres.
- In a smart city, economic development and activity is sustainable and rationally incremental by virtue of being based on success-oriented market drivers such as supply and demand.
- They benefit everybody, including citizens, businesses, the government and the environment.
What are the core infrastructure in a Smart City?
- According to the documents released on the Smart Cities website, the core infrastructure in a smart city would include:
- Adequate water supply
- Assured electricity supply
- Sanitation, including solid waste management
- Efficient urban mobility and public transport
- Affordable housing, especially for the poor
- Robust IT connectivity and digitalisation
- Good governance, especially e-Governance and citizen participation
- Sustainable environment
- Safety and security of citizens, particularly women, children and the elderly
- Health and education
Core concept :
- It was proposed by left liberal political philosopher Philippe van Pari in his book real freedom for all.
- According to him, basis for universal basic income is the fair distribution of real freedom to pursue the realisation of ones conception of the good life.
- Core of the concept of basic income is absence of means test(income of an individual) and work test (employment status).
- An alternative to universal basic income is negative income tax. According to this, individuals below a certain income threshold receives a tax credit.
- It is the difference between basic income or guaranteed income and tax liability. It is based on a premise that all citizens will pay the taxes.
The main features of universal basic income are
- It is provided to all the citizen by the state with out basic conditions like level of income and employment requirements.
- It is not a substitute to the existing developmental and welfare programmes. It is an add on to the existing anti poverty programmes. It is technically wrong to compare the costs of universal basic income with nutritional, child development, education and health programmes. So, internationally universal basic income is proposed in lieu of employment or income guarantee schemes.
- It is envisaged as a method of redistribution of wealth. So, funds shall be raised from taxation of rich rather than cutting down the expenditure on welfare.
- It should be universal and not targeted an end use shall not be specified.(unconditional)
- Resource mobilisation has to increase ten fold for the state to take up universal basic income.
Unlike this, economic survey has proposed an alternative view of universal basic income as a substitute to the existing welfare programmes.