Everything about Ordinance

What is an ordinance and who makes it?

  • Article 123 of the Indian Constitution grants the President of India to Promulgate Ordinances when either of the two Houses of the Parliament is not in session which makes it impossible for a single House to pass and enact a law.
  • Ordinances may relate to any subject that the parliament has the power to make law, and would be having same limitations.

When an ordinance can be issued?

  • When legislature is not in session.
  • When immediate action is needed: Here the Supreme Court has clarified that the legislative power to issue ordinances is ‘in the nature of an emergency power’ given to the executive only ‘to meet an emergent situation’.

How parliament exercises control over ordinance making power of President? 

  • The constitution provides two parliamentary checks vis-a-vis the promulgation of ordinance [Art 123(2) (a)]:
  • The power of parliament to pass resolutions disapproving the provisions of the ordinance.
  • The automatic expiry of the ordinance within six weeks of the reassembly of the houses of the parliament unless passed by the parliament; this gives a chance for the parliament to debate on the ordinance and review it accordingly.

Ordinance making powers of the Governor

  • Just as the President of India is constitutionally mandated to issue Ordinances under Article 123, the Governor of a state can issue Ordinances under Article 213, when the state legislative assembly (or either of the two Houses in states with bicameral legislatures) is not in session.
  • The powers of the President and the Governor are broadly comparable with respect to Ordinance making.
  • However, the Governor cannot issue an Ordinance without instructions from the President in certain cases where the assent of the President would have been required to pass a similar Bill.

Key debates relating to the Ordinance making powers of the Executive.

  • There has been significant debate surrounding the Ordinance making power of the President (and Governor).
  • Constitutionally, important issues that have been raised include:
  • Judicial review of the Ordinance making powers of the executive;
  • The necessity for ‘immediate action’ while promulgating an Ordinance;
  • And the granting of Ordinance making powers to the executive, given the principle of separation of powers.

Important Cases:

  • In 1970, RC Cooper vs.Union of India Case the Supreme Court, held that the President’s decision on Ordinance could be challenged on the grounds that ‘immediate action’ was not required; and the Ordinance had been passed primarily to by-pass debate and discussion in the legislature.
  • In 1980, AK Roy vs.Union of India case the Court argued that the President’s Ordinance making power is not beyond the scope of judicial review.

About the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT):

  • The nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty came into force in 1970, following widespread international concern about the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and the spiraling nuclear weapon stocks of those states that had developed them.
  • The NPT is a multilateral treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons including three elements: (1) non-proliferation, (2) disarmament, and (3) peaceful use of nuclear energy.
  • It says:
  • States without nuclear weapons will not acquire them;
  • States with nuclear weapons will pursue disarmament;
  • All states can access nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, under safeguards.
  • According to the treaty the nuclear weapon states are the United States, UK, Russia, China and France.
  • Three states, Israel, India and Pakistan did not sign the NPT.
  • They stayed outside the treaty framework and have developed nuclear weapons.
  • North Korea signed the treaty but withdrew from it in 2003.

 Parliamentary vs Presidential System

Does India need a presidential system?

Arguments :-

  1. Against

Debate can be divided in to feasibility and desirability

  1. In the existing constitutional scheme, change is not possible. Supreme court of India already held parliamentary form of Government as part of the basic structure of the constitution.
  2. Presidential system centralizes power and chances of it turning in to an authoritative system are high.
  3. If India’s diversity is taken in to consideration, it is not advisable to have a presidential system. Presidential system do not reflect the diversity well.
  4. Presidential system can create a stalemate situation between executive and legislature.

2. Favor

  1. Presidential system allows for quick decision making . Fixed term for executive makes him invulnerable from the politics of the day and provides stability. Decisiveness is necessary for India to deal with its enormous challenges.
  2. Accountability is better in Presidential system. Unlike in parliamentary system where Executive enjoys majority, there is no guarantee for the same in presidential system.
  3. President appoints his officers. It can bring in more talent in to the system.
  4. Parliamentary system have distorted voting preference of voters. It mean that voters are forced to vote for a candidate to have a particular leader as CM or Prime Minister.
  5. India will not have a US style two party grid lock. So issue based coalitions comes in to picture. It helps for greater debate in the houses.
  6. Most of the legislatures coming in to the houses are with little legislative experience and are participating in elections to get hold of executive power. It mean that they can not act as an effective legislative control.

WTO- Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA)

Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA)

  • Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) envisages faster clearances and reduction of red tapism at the borders and would thereby help in the ease of doing business.
  • TFA is bound to change the Indian trade and would bring more transparency in trade process.
  • after TFA ratification, the world wide best trade practices would be shared among the member countries.
  • She said while we have made rapid strides in streamlining our processes on the line of International best practices, in several areas, we need to ensure speedy legislation so that there are visible beneficial outcomes through trade facilitation. member countries would seek to simplify trade procedures and help promote cross border trade, bring greater predictability to traders and help improve the overall climate for trade and investment.
  • TFA is supposed to enable domestic manufacturers, particularly Small and Medium Enterprises, connect more easily to regional and Global Value Chains.
  • TFA contains provisions for expediting the movement, release and clearance of goods, including goods in transit. It also sets-out measures for effective cooperation between customs and other appropriate authorities on trade facilitation and customs compliance issues. Smt. Sitharaman said these objectives of TFA are in consonance with India’s ease of doing business initiative.

Global Innovation Index (GII)

The Global Innovation Index (GII) aims to capture the multi-dimensional facets of innovation and provide the tools that can assist in tailoring policies to promote long-term output growth, improved productivity, and job growth. The GII helps to create an environment in which innovation factors are continually evaluated. The Global Innovation Index 2016 (GII), in its […]