Tropic of Cancer 

Tropic of Cancer passes through below countries

N America

  • Mexico
  • Bahamas

Africa

  • Western Sahara
  • Mauritania
  • Mali
  • Algeria
  • Niger
  • Libya
  • Egypt

 Middle East

  • Saudi Arabia
  • UAE
  • Oman

Asia

  • India
  • Bangladesh
  • Myanmar
  • China
  • Taiwan
Advertisements

Biomes of the World

Equatorial Zone

Equatorial rainforest – around equator

  • Amazon rainforest, Congo basin, and east indies
  • Uniform weather through out the year
  • Rains in the afternoons
  • Double rainfall peaks coinciding with the equinoxes
  • Canopy structure – layered trees
  • Epiphytes
  • Unfertile soil
  • Abundance of species
  • Difficult to penetrate the jungle
  • Cloud Forests – relates to Selvas
  • Hardwood trees – mahogany, rosewood, rubber, ebony etc.
  • Major Tribal groups :
    • Malaysia – Semang
    • Sumatra – Kubus
    • Borneo – Dayaks
    • Congo Basin – Pygmies
    • South America – Amazon Indians

 

Hot Zone

Desert

  • Evaporation exceeds precipitation
  • Hot desert – around west coasts, around offshore trade winds zone, cold ocean currents influence, hot days, cold nights
  • e.g.. Atacama desert, Sahara, great Australian desert, Mohave desert, Kalahari desert
  • Mid latitude desert – continentalism e.g.. Gobi desert / rain shadow e.g. Patagonia desert
  • Scanty rainfall
  • Large roots, wide spread shallow roots
  • Oil rich countries
  • Camel dependent
  • E.g. Dubai
  • Major Tribal groups
    • Western Sahara – Tuaregs
    • Arabian Desert – Bedouins
    • Kalahari – Bushmen
    • Australia – Bindibus

 

Savannah or Sudan/ tropical grassland

  • Africa – national geo shot
  • Masai – cattle pastoralist – on the run – cattle as their god
  • Hausa – settled cultivators
  • Tall grasses and short trees a.k.a elephant grass
  • Distinct weather – wet summer and Dry winter
  • Llanos – Venezuela
  • Campos – Brazil

 

Tropical monsoon

  • India
  • Dry, cold winter
  • Wet and humid summer
  • South west monsoon and retreating NE monsoon – seasonal reversal of winds
  • Broad leaves deciduous trees
  • Teak, sal, rosewood, bamboos, deodar

 

Tropical marine

  • Around east coasts, trade winds
  • Burma teak famous, spices, tea and coffee plantations, sugar cane, bamboo trees

 

Warm Temperate Zone

Warm temperate – Mediterranean

  • Med region, SFO, south Chile, south west Australia and Africa
  • Influenced by westerlies and movement of ITCZ
  • Hot summer and wet winter 
  • World’s orchard land
  • Known for wines, orchids and grapes – Viticulture
  • Sclerophyllous vegetation is best developed here
  • Walnut, Figs, Chestnut, Almond, Cedar are found
    • California – Chapparal
    • Europe – Maquis
    • South Africa – Fynbos

 

Steppe grassland – temperate grassland

  • Prairie – America
  • Pampas – Argentina
  • Pustaz – Hungary
  • Steppe – Russia
  • Veld – South Africa
  • Downs – Australia
  • Canterbury – NZ
  • Wheat and pastoral
  • Short grasses – dairy industry, cheese
  • Granaries of the world
  • Major Tribal Groups
    • Central Asia – Kirghiz
    • North America – Red Indians
    • South Africa – Hottentots

 

Eastern warm temperate – China type

  • Gulf type – SE America – Florida, NC, SC, Indiana etc.. , south Japan
  • natal type
  • Influenced by monsoon
  • Cotton, tobacco and corn in gulf
  • Rice in South East China
  • Affected by tropical cyclones and hurricanes
  • Mulberry thrives the best in this region

 

Cool Temperate Zone

Cool temperate – British type – temperate deciduous

  • Vancouver BC, Seattle areas, Britain
  • Four seasons – winter, spring, summer and fall
  • Deciduous trees
  • Salmon fish
  • Shed leaves
  • Oak, Elm, maple, beech and birch are the trees found here

 

Temperate evergreen/ coniferous/ boreal/ taiga

  • Around Southern Alaska, Canada, Siberia
  • East west stretch – largest biome on the land
  • Absent in southern hemisphere
  • Pine, spruce, fir trees – coniferous trees
  • Needle shaped trees
  • Olympic national park, Banff national park etc..
  • Soft wooded trees
  • Wood and pulp industry – lumbering

 

Eastern cool temperate – Laurentian type

  • NE America and north Japan
  • Greatest fishing zones of the world
  • Warm and cold current meet
  • Have best technologies in fishing
  • Absent in southern hemisphere – continent tapers down
  • Japan
    • Non agri land
    • Protein source of fish
    • Currents meet, technology in fishing

 

Cold Zone

Tundra

  • Around poles
  • Largest wetlands of the world
  • Northern Alaska, Northern Canada, Greenland and northern Russia
  • Frozen desert
  • Denali national park
  • Permafrost – Permanently frozen sub soil
  • Snow in winter, beautiful landscape in summer
  • Bugyals in Himalayas
  • Mosses, lichens, Rhododendrons

 

 

Marine

  • largest biome
  • most stable biome
  • covers 75% of Earth’s surface
  • provides majority of Earth’s food and oxygen